Journal of Military History
Vol. 85, No. 2
April 2021


“Raiding, Pillaging, and Violent Social Change in Late Sixteenth-Century Livonia,” by Joseph Sproule, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 317–41
The Livonian War was typical of early modern conflicts; the most widespread forms of violence were associated with raiding, pillaging, and plundering. Drawing upon wartime correspondences, chronicles, and archival records, this article explores the characteristics and consequences of those activities as practiced by both foreign invaders and hired mercenaries. Raiding and pillaging often have been treated as merely symptomatic of early modern warfare. This article demonstrates how their pervasiveness dictated tactical and strategic considerations, influenced military policy, and shaped civil-military relations. It also argues that prolonged exposure to wartime brutality could play a significant part in breaking down longstanding social mores, transforming societies, and normalizing violence.
“Stone Truths: American Memorial Landscapes of World War I,” by Timothy B. Spears, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 342–68
In the cemeteries and monuments that the United States established in France after World War I, the American Battle Monuments Commission included maps and summaries documenting the operations of the American Expeditionary Forces. Etched into stone, these displays were based on research conducted by the commission’s historical section, a long-term project that led to the multivolume summaries that the commission published in the 1940s. Although the commission worked to shape memory and affect public opinion of the United States’ contributions to the war, the following analysis shows that it also strived to develop an accurate historical record of American military operations.
“German Perspectives on the U-Boat War, 1939–1941,” by Evan Wilson and Ruth Schapiro, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 369–98
Until the United States entered World War II, Britain’s isolation left it vulnerable to U-boats. Yet even when the campaign appeared to be going well, the German Naval War Staff worried that it was likely to be unsuccessful. The staff’s pessimism has been largely absent from the Anglophone historiography. The fundamental problem was that the Germans needed to secure a decisive result quickly, before the full weight of U.S. industrial might could be felt, but they were deploying a weapon designed for a long war. This article calls attention not only to this dilemma, but to the German awareness of it.
“In Need of a Home Away from Home: The Royal Netherlands Navy in Australia, 1942–1947,” by Mark C. Jones, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 399–425
The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, KM), after being driven from the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) by the Japanese, stationed forces in Australia from 1942 to 1947. The article addresses prewar naval contacts between the KM and Australia, activities of KM ships and aircraft stationed in Australia during the war, and the KM’s postwar efforts to increase its forces and return to the NEI. The article argues that the KM presence in Australia was more important than is conveyed by the extant literature, because of Australia’s role as a wartime refuge, administration and training center, and supply source for the NEI.
“Mediterranean Marines: The Challenges of Forward Deployment, 1948–1958,” by Corbin Williamson, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 426–52
The experience of Marine battalions rotated through the Mediterranean in the early Cold War illustrates the challenges of forward deployment, which became an increasingly common experience for the American military due to the militarization of containment. Examining the first ten years of these deployments shows how the Marine Corps worked to overcome some of these challenges while others remained intractable. The deployments reflected the broader contours of American defense policy: growing forward deployments as Truman’s containment of the Soviet Union came to rely more on military power, the novel operational demands of regularly training with allies, the subordination of secondary activities to support operations in Korea, and the economizing effects of the New Look.
“Foundation Bias: The Impact of the Air Corps Tactical School on United States Air Force Doctrine,” by Phil Haun, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 453–74
For over seventy years, the continued belief in the efficacy of strategic bombing has dominated United States Air Force thinking in times of war and peace. In addition, the core principles of air power articulated by the Air Corps Tactical School continue to reside in USAF doctrine. Despite the outcomes of the Korean, Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan wars, which have all demonstrated the effectiveness of joint operations and the limitations of strategic bombing, the ACTS tenets remain embedded in the very DNA of airmen and continue to influence how the United States Air Force views the modern air, space, and cyber domains.
Research Note:
“The Quasi-War,” by Donald R. Hickey, Journal of Military History 85:2 (April 2021): 475–84
Book Reviews:
Napoleon and de Gaulle: Heroes and History, by Patrice Gueniffey, reviewed by Jonathan Abel and by Sean Seidel, 485–88

War: How Conflict Shaped Us, by Margaret MacMillan, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 488–489

The Culture of Military Organizations, edited by Peter R. Mansoor and Williamson Murray, reviewed by Dalton Johnson, 489–91

The Cultural Parameters of the Graeco-Roman War Discourse, by Theo Vijgen, reviewed by Stephen DeCasien, 491–92

Caesar’s Great Success: Sustaining the Roman Army on Campaign, by Alexander Merrow, Agostino von Hassell, and Gregory Starace, reviewed by Bret Devereaux, 492–94

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, AD 451: Flavius Aetius, Attila the Hun and the Transformation of Gaul, by Evan Michael Schultheis, reviewed by Andrew Wolfe, 494–95

Military Cultures and Martial Enterprises in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of Richard P. Abels, edited by John D. Hosler and Steven Isaac, reviewed by Laurence W. Marvin, 495–97

War and Enlightenment in Russia: Military Culture in the Age of Catherine II, by Eugene Miakinkov, reviewed by Lucien Frary, 497–99

War, Patriotism, and Identity in Revolutionary North America, by Jon Chandler, reviewed by Raymond Limbach, 499–500

Occupied America: British Military Rule and the Experience of Revolution, by Donald F. Johnson, reviewed by Matt Reardon, 501–2

Another Kind of War: The Nature and History of Terrorism, by John A. Lynn II, reviewed by Wayne E. Lee, 502–4

A Mohawk Memoir from the War of 1812, by John Norton~Teyoninhokarawen, edited by Carl Benn, reviewed by Tony R. Mullis, 504–6

War, Law, and Humanity: The Campaign to Control Warfare, 1853–1914, by James Crossland, reviewed by Paul J. Springer, 506–7

Great Britain, International Law, and The Evolution of Maritime Strategic Thought, 1856–1914, by Gabriela A. Frei, reviewed by Matthew Dziennik, 508–9

A War State All Over: Alabama Politics and the Confederate Cause, by Ben Severance, reviewed by Anthony J. Cade II, 509–10

Storming Vicksburg: Grant, Pemberton, and the Battles of May 19–22, 1863, by Earl Hess, reviewed by Thomas G. Nester, 511–12

Fighting for Citizenship: Black Northerners and the Debate over Military Service in the Civil War, by Brian Taylor, reviewed by David Krueger, 512–14

Bodies in Blue: Disability in the Civil War North, by Sarah Handley-Cousins, reviewed by Jonathan S. Jones, 514–16

Civil War Monuments and the Militarization of America, by Thomas J. Brown, reviewed by Brian Holden Reid, 516–17

The Emergence of American Amphibious Warfare, 1898–1945, by David S. Nasca, reviewed by Walker D. Mills, 517–19

Men under Fire: Motivation, Morale, and Masculinity among Czech Soldiers in the Great War, 1914–1918, by Jiří Hutečka, reviewed by Mark R. Folse, 519–21

Communities under Fire: Urban Life at the Western Front, 1914–1918, by Alex Dowdall, reviewed by Allison Abra, 521–22

Communications and British Operations on the Western Front, 1914–1918, by Brian N. Hall, reviewed by Jonathan Reed Winkler, 523–24

From Horses to Horsepower: The Mechanization and Demise of the U.S. Cavalry, 1916–1950, by Alexander Bielakowski, reviewed by Nicholas Sambaluk, 525–26

The German Corpse Factory: A Study in First World War Propaganda, by Stephen Badsey, reviewed by David Monger, 526–28

Diagnosing Dissent: Hysterics, Deserters, and Conscientious Objectors in Germany during World War One, by Rebecca Ayako Bennette, reviewed by Marcelo Carocci-Ormsbee, 528–29

An Unladylike Profession: American Women War Correspondents in World War I, by Chris Dubbs, reviewed by Christine Hanlon, 530–31

Fishermen, the Fishing Industry and the Great War at Sea: A Forgotten History? By Robb Robinson, reviewed by Bob King, 531–33

Between Depression and Disarmament: The International Armaments Business, 1919–1939, by Jonathan A. Grant, reviewed by Shannon Dick, 533–34

Insurgency, Counter-insurgency and Policing in Centre-West Mexico, 1926–1929: Fighting Cristeros, by Mark Lawrence, reviewed by Gema Kloppe-Santamaría, 534–36

Such Splendid Prisons: Diplomatic Detainment in America during World War II, by Harvey Solomon, reviewed by Molly M. Wood, 536–37

Strangling the Axis: The Fight for Control of the Mediterranean during the Second World War, by Richard Hammond, reviewed by Vincent P. O’Hara, 538–39

Prisoners of the Empire: Inside Japanese POW Camps, by Sarah Kovner, reviewed by Derek R. Mallett, 539–41

The Collapse of British Rule in Burma: The Civilian Evacuation and Independence, by Michael D. Leigh; and The Man Who Took the Rap: Sir Robert Brooke-Popham and the Fall of Singapore, by Peter Dye, reviewed by Ron Leonhardt, 541–44

Operation Don’s Left Wing: The Trans-Caucasus Front’s Pursuit of the First Panzer Army, November 1942–February 1943, by David M. Glantz, reviewed by Russell A. Hart, 544–45

Selling Schweinfurt: Targeting, Assessment, and Marketing in the Air Campaign against German Industry, by Brian D. Vlaun, reviewed by Jorden Pitt, 546–47

Imperial Japan and Defeat in the Second World War: The Collapse of an Empire, by Peter Wetzler, reviewed by Yuting Dong, 547–49

Taking Leave, Taking Liberties: American Troops on the World War II Home Front, by Aaron Hiltner, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 549–50

War Junk: Munitions Disposal and Postwar Reconstruction in Canada, by Alex Souchen, reviewed by Karl L. Rubis, 550–52

Sacred Men: Law, Torture, and Retribution in Guam, by Keith L. Camacho, reviewed by Franziska Seraphim, 552–54

Soviet Judgment at Nuremberg: A New History of the International Military Tribunal after World War II, by Francine Hirsch, reviewed by Fred L. Borch, 554–56

The CIA and Third Force Movements in China during the Early Cold War: The Great American Dream, by Roger Jeans, reviewed by Hao Chen, 556–57

Not Even Past: How the United States Ends Wars, edited by David Fitzgerald, David Ryan, and John M. Thompson, reviewed by Jon Mikolashek, 558–59

Saigon at War: South Vietnam and the Global Sixties, by Heather Marie Stur, reviewed by Justin Simundson, 559–60

Forging a Total Force: The Evolution of the Guard and Reserve, by Forrest L. Marion and Jon T. Hoffman, reviewed by Barry M. Stentiford, 561–62

Containment in the Middle East, by Ehud Eilam, reviewed by Kate Tietzen, 562–64

Information Technology and Military Power, by Jon R. Lindsay, reviewed by Melvin G. Deaile, 564–65




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