Journal of Military History
Vol. 83, No. 4
October 2019


“Determining Early Modern Army Strength: The Case of Electoral Saxony,” by Lucian E. Staiano-Daniels, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1001-20
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Although armies grew larger during the seventeenth century, size estimates are often inaccurate. This article uses diverse sources to produce accurate troop counts for Electoral Saxony during the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), concluding that its army was large only briefly. It also discusses Saxony’s overlooked role in this war. This research suggests that the military revolution thesis should be revised: army sizes did not necessarily stabilize at higher levels and war did not necessarily “make the modern state.” Saxony went to war using traditional means of raising revenue: different states responded to their challenging environment differently.
“The Mongol Campaign in Hungary, 1241–1242: The Archaeology and History of Nomadic Conquest and Massacre,” by Attila Gyucha, Wayne E. Lee, and Zoltán Rózsa, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1021-66
Contemporaneous narrative sources described the Mongol conquest of the Hungarian Kingdom in 1241–1242 as extremely devastating, characterized by extensive and indiscriminate massacres. Measuring the reality of any ancient massacre, however, tends to be difficult in the absence of sufficient archaeological or documentary data. This article integrates conquest process theory, literary evidence, and data from substantial new archaeological work to explore the motivation and nature of Mongol invasion and the consequences for rural settlements on the Great Hungarian Plain.
“‘Unsatisfactory and Futile’: The Officers’ Lyceum Program and U.S. Army Reform,” by Benjamin D. Brands, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1067-94
In the late nineteenth century the U.S. Army underwent a prolonged reform movement aimed at professionalizing the army, especially the officer corps. Part of this movement was the beginning of a professional education system for officers, including the Officers’ Lyceum program. This article argues that despite the significant challenges facing the program and its irregular implementation across the far-flung frontier army, the Lyceums were an important and integral part of the greater professionalization of the late nineteenth-century army, furthering professional education within the army officer corps while providing a venue for the incubation of other reform ideas.
“War as It Might Have Been: British Sea Power and the First World War,” by David Morgan-Owen, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1095-1131
This article explores debates over whether Britain could have adopted a more “indirect approach” during the First World War (1914–18). It shows that convincing arguments that British sea power offered a legitimate alternative to the strategy of attrition on the Western Front never received due consideration because of shortcomings in Britain’s strategic decision-making apparatus. Britain might have fought the First World War very differently, and it might have been in its interest to have done so.
“‘Clouds Gathering on the Horizon’: The Russian Army and the Preparation of the Imperial Population for War, 1906–1914,” by Donald P. Wright, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1133-60
After the Revolution of 1905 and defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, the Russian government rebuilt its military power by modernizing weaponry, reforming mobilization plans, and expanding the standing force. As part of this effort, the Imperial Army also sought to improve the human material that was the foundation of Russia’s strength. Between 1906 and 1914, army officers introduced initiatives to prepare the population for military service. Through physical education and political lessons in the empire’s schools, as well as anniversary celebrations that glorified Russia’s past, the army hoped to create a population that would assure victory in the next war.
“Royal Air Force Bomber Command, the ‘Overlord Air Diversion,’ and ‘Precision’ Bombing at Night,” by W. A. Jacobs, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1161-88
The official historians of the British strategic air offensive described RAF Bomber Command’s development in the spring and summer of 1944 as an operational “revolution.” The present article explores aspects of that development in closer and critical detail, highlighting the organizational change employed to make operational experiments into standard operating procedure, the role of airborne control at the target (the master bomber), and related challenges in signals communication. It also examines closely some of the bombing data compiled and analyzed by the command’s Operational Research Section. The article concludes that the “revolution” produced change sufficient to make the command a more effective bomber force, but a variety of factors limited further progress in the operational environment of 1944–45.
“‘I am fully aware of my guilt . . .’: Insights from a Soviet Military Tribunal’s Investigation of the German Army’s 35th Division, 1946–47,” by David W. Wildermuth, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1189-1212
Soviet tribunal records concerning the convictions of German war criminals may provide valuable historical insights into the German army’s war of annihilation against the Soviet Union (1941–45) at the grassroots level. This case study investigates a war crime against Soviet civilians under the euphemism of an antipartisan operation by a frontline German army unit in April of 1944. The article pays particular attention to determining the credibility of both perpetrator and eyewitness statements from a historical instead of legal perspective.
“Singapore, Hong Kong, and the Royal Navy’s War in Korea, c. 1950–1953: Part 1,” by Joshua-John Tian Ser Seah, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1213-1234
Histories of Singapore and Hong Kong have traditionally focused on their role in British defence planning between the World Wars or the 1942 catastrophe. However, attention has recently shifted to their continued importance to Imperial security during the Cold War. This article adds to this by examining how these two fallen fortresses were restored and used to project British naval power into the Korean War. It analyses how their geopolitical conditions and security concerns affected British military power projection. It assesses the value of the fortresses through an operational lens, drawing on Korean War logistical-administrative reports and naval campaign accounts.
“‘Visionary Battle Scenes’: Reading Sir John Hackett’s The Third World War, 1977–85,” by Adam R. Seipp, The Journal of Military History 83:4 (October 2019): 1235-57
This article examines the writing and reception of Sir John Hackett’s bestselling 1978 novel The Third World War. The retired British general and a team of collaborators produced a vision of global conflict that found an enthusiastic audience around the world. I argue that Hackett’s book succeeded in large part because he reflected growing anxieties about the future of the Cold War just as the superpower confrontation entered a period of dangerous instability. This novel also helped to inspire the modern literary genre of the techno-thriller, which remains commercially and intellectually important today.
Book Reviews:
Race and Gender in Modern Western Warfare, by Bobby A. Wintermute and David J. Ulbrich, reviewed by D’Ann Campbell and by Mark R. Folse, 1259-62

Fortifications and Siegecraft: Defense and Attack through the Ages, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Paul J. Springer, 1262-63

Athenian Democracy at War, by David M. Pritchard, reviewed by Alfred S. Bradford, 1264-65

Decisive Battles in Chinese History, by Morgan Deane, reviewed by Zhongtian Han, 1265-67

The Avars: A Steppe Empire in Central Europe, 567–822, by Walter Pohl, reviewed by Jason Linn, 1267-68

Empires of the Weak: The Real Story of European Expansion and the Creation of the New World Order, by J.C. Sharman, reviewed by Charles G. Thomas, 1268-70

Cromwell at War: The Lord General and his Military Revolution, by Martyn Bennett, reviewed by Amos Tubb, 1270-71

The Road to Charleston: Nathanael Greene and the American Revolution, by John Buchanan, reviewed by Benjamin L. Carp, 1271-73

Fighting the French Revolution: The Great Vendée Rising of 1793, by Rob Harper, reviewed by Jordan R. Hayworth, 1273-74

The Royal Navy 1793–1800: Birth of a Superpower, by Mark Jessop, reviewed by Alan M. Anderson, 1275-76

By Fire and Bayonet: Grey’s West Indies Campaign of 1794, by Steve Brown, reviewed by Christopher Reid, 1276-77

Crimea in War and Transformation, by Mara Kozelsky, reviewed by Robert Dale, 1277-79

Life In Jefferson Davis’ Navy, by Barbara Brooks Tomblin, reviewed by Gordon B. Calhoun, 1279-80

Leonidas Polk: Warrior Bishop of the Confederacy, by Huston Horn, reviewed by Bradley J. Pogue, 1281-82

Camp Oglethorpe: Macon’s Unknown Civil War Prisoner of War Camp, 1862-1864, by Stephen Hoy and William Smith, reviewed by Angela Zombek, 1282-84

A Campaign of Giants: The Battle for Petersburg, by A. Wilson Greene, reviewed by Anthony J. Cade II, 1284-85

1865 Alabama: From Civil War to Uncivil Peace, by Christopher Lyle McIlwain, Sr., reviewed by Jayson A. Altieri, 1286-87

The American Soldier, 1866–1916: The Enlisted Man and the Transformation of the United States Army, by John A. Haymond, reviewed by Jonathan Beall, 1287-88

Interrupted Odyssey: Ulysses S. Grant and the American Indians, by Mary Stockwell, reviewed by Matthew D. McDonough, 1289-90

White Hat: The Military Career of Captain William Philo Clark, by Mark J. Nelson, reviewed by Alexander M. Humes, 1290-91

Rosebud, June 17, 1876: Prelude to the Little Big Horn, by Paul L. Hedren, reviewed by Ryan W. Booth, 1292-93

Rorke’s Drift and Isandlwana: Great Battles, by Ian F. W. Beckett, reviewed by Jodie N. Mader, 1293-94

The Fear of Invasion: Strategy, Politics, and British War Planning, 1880–1914, by David G. Morgan-Owen, reviewed by Evan Wilson, 1294-96

Revolutionary Masculinity and Racial Inequality: Gendering War and Politics in Cuba, by Bonnie A. Lucero, reviewed by Anasa Hicks, 1296-97

The Law of Nations and Britain’s Quest for Naval Security: International Law and Arms Control, 1898–1914, by Scott Andrew Keefer, reviewed by Mark R. Shulman, 1298-99

The Girls Next Door: Bringing the Home Front to the Front Lines, by Kara Dixon Vuic, reviewed by Anni Cecil, 1299-1300

The Indian Army in the First World War: New Perspectives, edited by Alan Jeffreys; and Army of Empire: the Untold Story of the Indian Army in World War I, by George Morton-Jack, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 1301-3

The Forgotten Front: The Eastern Theater of World War I, 1914–1915, edited by Gerhard P. Gross, translated by Janice W. Ancker, reviewed by Richard L. DiNardo, 1303-4

A Weary Road: Shell Shock in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914–1918, by Mark Osborne Humphries, reviewed by Julie M. Powell, 1304-6

Captured, Not Conquered: The American POW Experience in the First World War, by Greg Eanes, reviewed by Robert C. Doyle, 1306-7

The Generals’ War: Operational Level Command on the Western Front in 1918, by David T. Zabecki, reviewed by Budd A. Jones, 1307-9

The Great War in America: World War I and Its Aftermath, by Garrett Peck, reviewed by Bruce Zellers, 1309-11

Taking Flight: The Foundations of American Commercial Aviation, 1918–1938, by M. Houston Johnson V, reviewed by Stephen G. Craft, 1311-13

Winning a Future War: War Gaming and Victory in the Pacific War, by Norman Friedman, reviewed by Trent Hone, 1313-15

Lectures of the Air Corps Tactical School and American Strategic Bombing in World War II, edited by Phil Haun, reviewed by Heather Pace Venable, 1315-16

The Soldier Image and State-Building in Modern China, 1924–1945, by Yan Xu, reviewed by S. C. M. Paine, 1316-18

Japan’s Occupation of Java in the Second World War, by Ethan Mark, reviewed by Janis Mimura, 1318-20

Victory at Midway: The Battle that Changed the Course of World War II, by James M. D’Angelo, reviewed by Kevin Bemel, 1320-21

Stanley Johnston’s Blunder: The Reporter who Spilled the Secret behind the U.S. Navy’s Victory at Midway, by Elliot Carlson, reviewed by Klaus Schmider, 1321-23

The Rise and Fall of an Officer Corps: The Republic of China Military, 1942–1955, by Eric Setzekorn, reviewed by Diana Lary, 1323-24

Operation Don’s Main Attack: The Soviet Southern Front’s Advance on Rostov, January–February 1943, by David M. Glantz, reviewed by Alan Donohue, 1324-26

Battle for Belorussia: The Red Army’s Forgotten Campaign of October 1943–April 1944, by David M. Glantz with Mary Elizabeth Glantz, reviewed by Michael Stout, 1326-27

The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: When Total Empire Met Total War, by Jeremy A. Yellen, reviewed by Nicholas Sambaluk, 1328-29

The General Who Wore Six Stars: The Inside Story of John C. H. Lee, by Hank H. Cox, reviewed by William S. Nance, 1329-30

The Australian Pursuit of Japanese War Criminals, 1943–1957: From Foe to Friend, by Dean Aszkielowicz, reviewed by Graham B. Cox, 1330-32

Eisenhower’s Guerrillas: The Jedburghs, the Maquis, and the Liberation of France, by Benjamin F. Jones, reviewed by James Sandy, 1332-33

Landing on the Edge of Eternity: Twenty-Four Hours at Omaha Beach, by Robert Kershaw, reviewed by Bradley F. Podliska, 1333-34

Australia’s War Crimes Trials 1945–1951, by Georgina Fitzpatrick, Tim McCormack, and Narrelle Morris, reviewed by Fred L. Borch, 1334-37

Männer von Ehre? Die Wehrmachtgeneralität im Nürnberger Prozess 1945/6. Zur Entstehung einer Legende, by Jens Brüggemann, reviewed by Mark M. Hull, 1337-39

Views of Violence: Representing the Second World War in German and European Museums and Memorials, edited by Jörg Echternkamp and Stephan Jaeger, reviewed by Susan A. Crane, 1339-40

Maxwell Taylor’s Cold War: From Berlin to Vietnam, by Ingo Trauschweizer, reviewed by David W. Bath, 1341-42

Active Defense: China’s Military Strategy since 1949, by M. Taylor Fravel, reviewed by Edward Marolda, 1342-43

Decolonization and Conflict: Colonial Comparisons and Legacies, edited by Martin Thomas and Gareth Curless, reviewed by Robert H. Clemm, 1344-45

Brutality in an Age of Human Rights: Activism and Counterinsurgency at the End of the British Empire, by Brian Drohan, reviewed by Benjamin R. Beede, 1345-47

Contested Territory: Điện Biên Phủ and the Making of Northwest Vietnam, by Christian C. Lentz, reviewed by Qingfei Yin, 1347-48

Spy Pilot: Francis Gary Powers, the U-2 Incident and a Controversial Cold War Legacy, by Francis Gary Powers, Jr., and Keith Dunnavant, reviewed by Gates Brown, 1348-50

Beyond the Quagmire: New Interpretations of the Vietnam War, edited by Geoffrey W. Jensen and Matthew M. Stith, reviewed by Robert K. Brigham, 1350-51

Israel’s Long War with Hezbollah: Military Innovation and Adaptation Under Fire, by Raphael D. Marcus, reviewed by Robert W. Tomlinson, 1351-53

Flight Risk: The Coalition’s Air Advisory Mission in Afghanistan, 2005–2015, by Forrest L. Marion, reviewed by Justin S. Herbermann, 1353-54

Plan Colombia: U.S. Ally Atrocities and Community Activism, by John Lindsay-Poland, reviewed by Naiomi Gonzalez, 1354-56

Russia’s Military Revival, by Bettina Renz, reviewed by D. Jonathan White, 1356-57

Future War: Preparing for the New Global Battlefield, by Robert H. Latiff, reviewed by Jeremy S. Weber, 1357-59

INDEX TO VOLUME 83: 1372-1397
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