Journal of Military History
Vol. 81, No. 1
January 2017

Articles

John Laband, “The Slave Soldiers of Africa,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 9-38
This study attempts an exploratory overview of African military slavery, which is marked by the unusual longevity of the phenomenon and by its surviving social legacy. Before the colonial period military slavery was not confined (as is often supposed) to the Muslim states of North Africa and the Sahel, but was also practiced in many non-Muslim sub-Saharan societies. In the late nineteenth century the colonial powers liberated, conscripted or purchased African slave soldiers for their own armies. Although the institution of military slavery died away during the colonial period, it has re-emerged in independent Africa as child soldiering.
Troy Downs, “The Raj in Peril: The City of Benares during the Indian Uprising of 1857,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 39-73
The Indian Uprising of 1857 was the largest colonial insurrection the British had to face in the nineteenth century. Indian troops of the Bengal Native Army rose up in revolt, as did many Indian civilians, making 1857 both a military mutiny and a civil rebellion. This paper examines how the British authorities stationed at Benares (the modern city of Varanasi) managed to see off the multiple threats to their local governance. Not only were these dangers overcome, but Benares itself was to play a vital role in ensuring that the British possessed the military resources needed to defeat the insurgency.
Kurt Hackemer, “Wartime Trauma and the Lure of the Frontier: Civil War Veterans in Dakota Territory,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 75-103
This paper quantitatively analyzes an 1885 Dakota Territory census to draw larger conclusions about Civil War veterans who migrated to the frontier. A sample of almost 6,000 veterans suggests that a significant percentage experienced some degree of wartime trauma, needed to reestablish themselves socially and economically, and took advantage of what financial security they had when homesteading newly opened territory. They were more likely to move to newly opened counties by themselves rather than with comrades from the war, relying on prior relationships only when moving to more established regions of the frontier where those associations might prove useful.
Michael J. Crawford, “The Abolition of Prize Money in the United States Navy Reconsidered,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 105-32
Efforts to end prize money—monetary awards to naval personnel for the capture of enemy ships and cargoes in wartime—for the United States Navy began shortly after the War of 1812. They were redoubled following the Civil War (1861–1865). But only in 1899 did numerous particularly American motives—ideological, fiscal, pragmatic, psychological, and strategic—unite to put an end to naval prize money in the United States. In contrast, the United Kingdom maintained naval prize money for another fifty years.
Gregor Kranjc, “Fight or Flight: Desertion, Defection, and Draft-Dodging in Occupied Slovenia, 1941–1945,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 133-62
As Slovenes were the only people to be annexed by three occupiers during World War II—Italy, Germany, and Hungary—the work offers a unique comparison of Axis policies on conscripting occupied populations and combatting desertion and draft-dodging. In Slovenia’s fratricidal guerilla war between the native Communist-led resistance, the Liberation Front, and Axis-sponsored Slovene military collaborators, these irregular units also competed to enlist men of fighting age and struggled to keep them from leaving. An examination of the motives behind the men’s decisions not to fight reveals that the rallying cry of “national duty” was often trumped by more parochial and individual concerns.
Anthony Eames, “The Trident Sales Agreement and Cold War Diplomacy,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 163-86
The U.S. sale of Trident submarine-launched ballistic missile technology to Britain in 1982 resolved doubts that had emerged in the 1970s about the importance, durability, and strength of the Anglo-American nuclear partnership. But the Trident Sales Agreement did more than bring the “special relationship” out of the doldrums. It became an integral part of an Anglo-American agenda that bolstered North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) unity in the face of Soviet efforts to undermine the alliance’s nuclear objectives.
Feature:

Ciro Paoletti, “The Battle of Culloden: A Pivotal Moment in World History,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 187-98
The battle of Culloden, an encounter between armies of the Hanoverian and Stuart dynasties on a Scottish moor in April 1746, traditionally has been treated in the historiography as a strictly British affair with exclusively British consequences. This essay seeks to place the battle in a much broader framework, suggesting that it had long-term implications for not just Britain, but for much of the rest of the world as well. It contends that it is not unreasonable to argue, for example, that if the battle had been lost by the Hanoverians, the United States probably would not exist today and French would be the primary language spoken in North America.
Bibliographic Essay:

Joan Cashin, “American Women and the American Civil War,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 199-204
 
Review Essay:

Bruce Vandervort, “African Military History Comes of Age,” The Journal of Military History, 81:1 (January 2017): 205-8

Reviews:
The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta: The Persian Challenge, by Paul A. Rahe, reviewed by Stephen O’Connor, 209-10

Pax Romana: War, Peace and Conquest in the Roman World, by Adrian Goldsworthy, reviewed by Rose Mary Sheldon, 211-12

A History of the Jewish War, A.D. 66-74, by Steve Mason, reviewed by Rosemary Moore, 213-14

The Battle of Crécy: A Casebook, edited by Michael Livingstone and Kelly DeVries, reviewed by Craig M. Nakashian, 214-16

Civilians at War, from the Fifteenth Century to the Present, edited by Gunner Lind, reviewed by Nicholas J. Steneck, 216-18

Les mots de la guerre dans l’Europe de la Renaissance, edited by Marie Madeleine Fontaine and Jean-Louis Fournel, reviewed by Stéphane Gal, 218-19

The Last Armada. Queen Elizabeth, Juan del Águila, and Hugh O'Neill: The Story of the 100-day Spanish Invasion, by Des Ekin, reviewed by Paul E. J. Hammer, 220-21

Grand Strategy and Military Alliances, edited by Peter R. Mansoor and Williamson Murray, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 222-23

The Invasion of Canada by the Americans, 1775-1776, as told through Jean-Baptiste Badeaux’s Three Rivers Journal and New York Captain William Goforth’s Letters, edited by Mark R. Anderson, translated by Teresa L. Meadows, reviewed by Caroline D’Amours, 223-25

Vice in the Barracks: Medicine, the Military, and the Making of Colonial India, 1780-1868, by Erica Wald, reviewed by Ashley Wright, 225-27

A Scientific Way of War: Antebellum Military Science, West Point, and the Origins of American Military Thought, by Ian C. Hope, reviewed by Bradley Lynn Coleman, 227-28

Confederate Saboteurs: Building the Hunley and Other Secret Weapons of the Civil War, by Mark Ragan, reviewed by John D. Huddleston, 229-30

The Civil War Years in Utah: The Kingdom of God and the Territory That Did Not Fight, by John Gary Maxwell, reviewed by G. David Schieffler, 230-32

Braxton Bragg: The Most Hated Man of the Confederacy, by Earl J. Hess, reviewed by Wallace Hettle, 232-33

Sailing with Farragut: The Civil War Recollections of Bartholomew Diggins, edited by George S. Burckhardt, reviewed by Harold D. Langley, 233-34

The Gettysburg Address: Perspectives on Lincoln’s Greatest Speech, edited by Sean Conant, reviewed by Lesley J. Gordon, 234-35

Kill Jeff Davis: The Union Raid on Richmond, 1864, by Bruce M. Venter, reviewed by Eric Paul Totten, 236-37

Haunted By Atrocity: Civil War Prisons in American Memory, by Benjamin G. Cloyd, reviewed by Brian Matthew Jordan, 238-39

Kitchener: Hero and Anti Hero, by Brad Faught, reviewed by Stephen Heathorn, 240-41

The Decade of the Great War: Japan and the Wider World in the 1910s, edited by Tosh Minohara, Tze-ki Hon, and Evan Dawley, reviewed by Noriko Kawamura, 241-43

Torpedo: Inventing the Military-Industrial Complex in the United States and Great Britain, by Katherine C. Epstein, reviewed by Andrew Lambert, 243-45

Fall of the Double Eagle: The Battle for Galicia and the Demise of Austria-Hungary, by John R. Schindler, reviewed by Philip Pajakowski, 245-46

Striking the Hornets’ Nest: Naval Aviation and the Origins of Strategic Bombing in World War I, by Geoffrey L. Rossano and Thomas Wildenberg, reviewed by Guillaume de Syon, 247-48

Morale and the Italian Army during the First World War, by Vanda Wilcox, reviewed by Emanuele Sica, 248-49

Gallipoli: Command under Fire, by Edward J. Erickson, reviewed by Pheroze Unwalla, 250-51

The Stomach for Fighting: Food and the Soldiers of the Great War, by Rachel Duffett, reviewed by Carol Helstosky, 251-53

Voices from the Front: An Oral History of the Great War, by Peter Hart, reviewed by Brian K. Feltman, 253-55

Colonial Naval Culture and British Imperialism, 1922-1967, by Daniel Owen Spence, reviewed by Laura M. Seddelmeyer, 255-57

The Origins of the Grand Alliance: Anglo-American Military Collaboration from the Panay Incident to Pearl Harbor, by William T. Johnsen, reviewed by David Hein, 257-58

India’s War: World War II and the Making of Modern South Asia, by Srinath Raghavan, reviewed by Andrew Muldoon, 258-60

Ireland during the Second World War: Farewell to Plato’s Cave, by Bryce Evans, reviewed by Caleb Richardson, 260-61

Barbarossa 1941: Reframing Hitler’s Invasion of Stalin’s Soviet Empire, by Frank Ellis, reviewed by Raymond D. Limbach, 263-63

Barbarossa Derailed: The Battle for Smolensk, 10 July-10 September 1941. Volume I: The German Advance, the Encirclement Battle and the First and Second Soviet Counteroffensives, 10 July -24 August 1941; Volume II: The German Advance on the Flanks and the Third Soviet Counteroffensive, 25 August-10 September 1941; Volume III: The Documentary Companion. Tables, Orders and Reports Prepared by Participating Red Army Forces; Volume IV: Atlas, by David M. Glantz, reviewed by Matthew Lenoe, 264-66

Espionage and Counterintelligence in Occupied Persia (Iran): The Success of the Allied Secret Services, 1941-45, by Adrian O’Sullivan, reviewed by Jeffrey Macris, 267-69

The Royal Air Force in American Skies: The Seven British Flight Schools in the United States during World War II, by Tom Killebrew, reviewed by Galen Roger Perras, 269-70

The Invasion of the Dutch East Indies, edited and translated by Willem Remmelink, reviewed by Fred L. Borch, 270-72

Donovan’s Devils: OSS Commandos behind Enemy Lines—Europe, World War II, by Albert Lulushi, reviewed by James Sandy, 272-73

General Jacob L. Devers: World War II’s Forgotten Four Star, by John A. Adams and Jacob L. Devers: A General's Life, by James Scott Wheeler, reviewed by David W. Hogan, Jr., 273-75

Among the Headhunters: An Extraordinary World War II Story of Survival in the Burmese Jungle, by Robert Lyman, reviewed by Raymond Callahan, 275-77

Advising Chiang’s Army: An American Soldier’s World War II Experience in China, by Stephen L. Wilson and Ray Banta’s War: A Combat Surgeon in World War II China, by John E. Clark, Jr., reviewed by Katherine K. Reist, 277-79

Strangers in Arms: Combat Motivation in the Canadian Army, 1943-45, by Robert Engen, reviewed by William John Pratt, 279-81

Firing on Fortress Europe: HMS Belfast at D-Day, by Nick Hewitt, reviewed by Marc Milner, 281-82

General George C. Marshall and the Atomic Bomb, by Frank A. Settle, Jr., reviewed by Albert I. Berger, 282-83

Enemies to Allies: Cold War Germany and American Memory, by Brian C. Etheridge, reviewed by Daniel E. Rogers, 284-85

The Cold War: A Military History, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Paul Thomas Chamberlin, 285-87

The General vs. the President: MacArthur and Truman at the Brink of Nuclear War, by H.W. Brands, reviewed by Hal Elliott Wert, 287-89

Fighting the Cold War: A Soldier’s Memoir, by General John R. Galvin, reviewed by Bruce Zellers, 290-92

Sea Stories: A Memoir of a Naval Officer (1956-1967), by Gary Slaughter, reviewed by William S. Dudley, 292-93

Biafra’s War 1967-1970: A Tribal Conflict in Nigeria That Left a Million Dead, by Al J. Venter, reviewed by Adebayo Oyebade, 293-95

The Soul of Armies: Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Military Culture in the US and UK, by Austin Long, reviewed by Walter E. Kretchik, 295-97

Westmoreland’s War: Reassessing American Strategy in Vietnam, by Gregory A. Daddis, reviewed by Jessica Elkind, 297-99

New Perceptions of the Vietnam War: Essays on the War, the South Vietnamese Experience, the Diaspora and the Continuing Influence, edited by Nathalie Huynh Chau Nguyen, reviewed by Gregory Scott Lella, 299-301

The War after the War: The Struggle for Credibility during America’s Exit from Vietnam, by Johannes Kadura, reviewed by Roger Chapman, 301-2

An Untaken Road: Strategy, Technology, and the Hidden History of America’s Mobile ICBMs, by Steven A. Pomeroy, reviewed by Steven J. Bucklin, 302-4

Toward a New Maritime Strategy: American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era, by Peter D. Haynes, reviewed by Ryan Wadle, 304-6

The Iran-Iraq War, by Pierre Razoux, translated by Nicholas Elliott, reviewed by Joseph Sassoon, 306-8

Selling War: A Critical Look at the Military’s PR Machine, by Stephen J. Alvarez, reviewed by Mark R. Wilson, 308-9

The Evolution of Modern Grand Strategic Thought, by Lukas Milevski, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 310-11

BOOKS RECEIVED: 312-17
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 318-29