Journal of Military History
Vol. 80, No. 3
July 2016

Articles

“Victims of an Ideological Rift? Dutch Prisoners of War during the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652–1654),” by Gijs Rommelse and Roger Downing, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 649-69
Dutch prisoners from the sea battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War of 1652–1654 were held in England under generally inhumane conditions. It has recently become accepted that ideological differences, as much as commercial, led to the deterioration in relations that led to the conflict. English public opinion had been inflamed by a vicious anti-Dutch propaganda campaign, suggesting that ideological demonization could provide the explanation for the dire treatment to which the prisoners were subjected. It is concluded, however, that logistical problems associated with their reception, plus the chronic lack of money of Cromwell’s regime, provide a sufficient explanation.
“German Military Participation in Early Modern European Colonialism,” by Chen Tzoref-Ashkenazi, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 671-95
The article examines the military participation of Germans in early modern colonialism, focusing on their service to colonial trading companies and colonial powers. It shows that the German colonial empire had a long pre-history, since German mercenaries provided a vital “tool of empire” for European colonial powers. The article argues that the extensive participation of German soldiers in early modern colonialism demonstrates a hybridity in European colonialism in that national colonial empires relied on trans-national European human resources in addition to local manpower. The article examines German soldiers’ identification with their colonial employers and shows that soldiers recruited as a group retained a stronger sense of separate identity.
“The Abolition of the U.S. Army Canteen, 1898–1914,” by Anni Baker, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 697-724
In the 1880s, the U.S. Army established on-post canteens as a way of curbing excessive drinking in off-post taverns. Army officers supported the canteen concept, but when large numbers of citizen volunteers entered the army in 1898, the temperance movement, particularly the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), successfully advocated for the canteen’s abolition. The ensuing public debate revealed contesting popular images of soldiers: innocent boys or adult men. The canteen debate focused the attention of Progressive Era activists on moral and social conditions in the army, and engendered a long debate over the role of the army in American society.
“Battling Bolshevik Bogeymen: Spain’s Cordon Sanitaire against Revolution from a European Perspective, 1917–1923,” by James Matthews, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 725-55
By placing the anti-Bolshevik reaction in Spain in 1917-1923 in a transnational context, this article adds nuance to a Europe-wide analysis of the era’s counter-revolutionary movements by including a prominent First World War neutral. It also questions the prominent “brutalization” thesis that links postwar violence to trench warfare and military defeat. This cannot explain the widespread and violent social unrest that gripped Spain after 1917. But, rather than reject the war and brutalization thesis entirely, this article contends that the Russian Revolution should be seen as part of a “Greater War” that affected all countries, whether they were formally belligerents or not.
“The Spanish Military and the Tank, 1909–1939,” by José Vicente Herrero Pérez, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 757-80
The conventional wisdom holds that Spain took only a limited interest in armored warfare until the European powers that intervened in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the USSR, demonstrated its importance on the battlefield. The author, tapping into the previously ignored professional military literature in Spain, reveals that, to the contrary, officers in the Spanish army early on took a lively interest in armor, an interest fed not only by what they knew of developments elsewhere in Europe but by the possibility of using tanks and other armored vehicles to advantage in Spain’s colonial wars in Morocco. It was not so much lack of interest that retarded Spanish development of armored units as lack of funds. Over the interwar years, upwards of 50 percent of the Spanish military budget was spent on personnel, particularly the army’s bloated officer corps.
“Edward Mead Earle and the Unfinished Makers of Modern Strategy,” by Michael P. M. Finch, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 781-814
The American historian Edward Mead Earle has until recently escaped the attention of historians of war, although his edited volume of 1943, Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler, was a seminal work in the field, widely read by military historians. Whilst recent scholarship has sought to situate Earle as a key figure in the pre–Second World War development of American security studies, this article emphasizes Earle’s role as a historian compiling a volume which was distinctly historical in approach, tone, and scope. His plans for a revised second edition never came to fruition, so Makers remained an unfinished work.
“The First War for Oil: The Caucasus, German Strategy, and the Turning Point of the War on the Eastern Front, 1942,” by Anand Toprani, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 815-54
The German summer offensive against the Soviet Union in 1942, Case Blue, is one of the most famous campaigns in history thanks to the Battle of Stalingrad. Although historians agree that the offensive’s aim was control of the Caucasian oilfields, there is a widespread misconception that Baku was the main objective. German ambitions were in fact rather modest—the primary objectives were the smaller and more accessible oilfields of Maikop and Grozny. The Germans were also just as determined to deny the Soviets access to Caucasian oil by severing transit along the Volga as they were to secure the oil for themselves.
Research Note:

“Horatio Nelson Never Wrote ‘A Ship’s a Fool to Fight a Fort’; It Was Jackie Fisher Who Invented the Attribution,” by Larrie D. Ferreiro, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 855-56
Review Essay:

“Casting Light on a Dark Territory,” by Ralph M. Hitchens, The Journal of Military History, 80:3 (July 2016): 857-62

Reviews:
Ottomans and Armenians: A Study in Counterinsurgency, by Edward J. Erickson, reviewed by Arsene Saparov and by İpek Kocaomer Yosmaoğlu, 863-68

The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades, by Paul M. Cobb, reviewed by Heather N. Keaney, 868-69

Armsbearing and the Clergy in the History and Canon Law of Western Christianity, by Lawrence G. Duggan, reviewed by Katherine Allen Smith, 869-71

The Battle of Agincourt, edited by Anne Curry and Malcolm Mercer, reviewed by Erica Bastress-Dukehart, 871-72

Journal, Memorials, and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge: Security, Diplomacy, and Commerce in 17th-century Southeast Asia, edited by Peter Borschberg, reviewed by Kris Alexanderson, 873-74

Asian Expansions: The Historical Experience of Polity Expansion in Asia, edited by Geoff Wade, reviewed by Evan Dawley, 875-76

The Great Northern War Compendium, 1700-1721, edited by Stephen L. Kling, Jr., reviewed by Ralph R. Reinertsen, 876-78

The Last Battle on English Soil: Preston 1715, by Jonathan Oates, reviewed by Nicole Greenspan, 878-80

Hodges’ Scout: A Lost Patrol of the French and Indian War, by Len Travers, reviewed by Frank Kalesnik, 880-81

Swords Trembling in their Scabbards: The Changing Status of Indian Officers in the Indian Army, 1757-1947, by Michael Creese, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 881-83

The Miracle of American Independence: Twenty Ways Things Could Have Turned Out Differently, by Jonathan R. Dull, reviewed by Sandra Moats, 884-85

Soldiers on the Home Front: The Domestic Role of the American Military, by William C. Banks and Stephen Dycus, reviewed by John Worsencroft, 885-86

European Armies of the French Revolution 1789-1802, edited by Frederick C. Schneid, reviewed by Clifford D. Harmon, 886-88

The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution, by Timothy Tackett, reviewed by Howard G. Brown, 888-90

Revisiting Prussia’s Wars Against Napoleon: History, Culture, and Memory, by Karen Hagemann, reviewed by Katherine B. Aaslestad, 890-92

Eastern Fortress: A Military History of Hong Kong, 1840-1970, by Kwong Chi Man and Tsoi Yiu Lun, reviewed by Anne Csete, 892-93

The Crimean War in Imperial Context, 1854-1856, by Andrew Rath, reviewed by Mara Kozelsky, 894-95

The Myth of the Lost Cause: Why the South Fought the Civil War and Why the North Won, by Edward H. Bonekemper III, reviewed by David C. Williard, 895-97

“My Greatest Quarrel with Fortune”: Major General Lew Wallace in the West, 1861–1862, by Charles G. Beemer, reviewed by Fred L. Johnson III, 897-99

Border Wars: The Civil War in Tennessee and Kentucky, edited by Kent T. Dollar, Larry H. Whiteaker, and W. Calvin Dickinson, reviewed by Lawrence Kreiser, Jr., 899-900

The Notorious Isaac Earl and His Scouts: Union Soldiers, Prisoners, Spies, by Gordon L. Olson, reviewed by Clay Mountcastle. 900-1

Citizen-Officers: The Union and Confederate Volunteer Junior Officer Corps in the American Civil War, by Andrew S. Bledsoe, reviewed by John G. Selby, 902-3

Veterans North and South: The Transition from Soldier to Civilian after the American Civil War, by Paul A. Cimbala, reviewed by Aaron Astor, 903-5

A Canadian Girl in South Africa: A Teacher’s Experiences in the South African War, 1899-1902, by E. Maud Graham, edited by Michael Dawson, Catherine Gidney, and Susanne M. Klausen, reviewed by Cynthia Curran, 905-6

U.S. Navy Codebreakers, Linguists, and Intelligence Officers Against Japan, 1910-1941, by Steven E. Maffeo, reviewed by Roger Dingman, 906-97

“A Slashing Man of Action”: The Life of Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer Hunter-Weston, MP, by Elaine McFarland, reviewed by Ian Isherwood, 908-9

The Embattled General: Sir Richard Turner and the First World War, by William F. Stewart, reviewed by Timothy C. Winegard, 909-10

Before Jutland: The Naval War in Northern European Waters, August 1914-February 1915, by James Goldrick, reviewed by Rebecca Matzke, 911-12

Die in Battle, Do Not Despair: The Indians on Gallipoli, 1915, by Peter Stanley, reviewed by Arvind Elangovan, 912-14

Gabrielle Petit: The Death and Life of a Female Spy in the First World War, by Sophie De Schaepdrijver, reviewed by Ute Chamberlin, 914-15

The Kurdish Spring: A New Map of the Middle East, by David L. Phillips, reviewed by Ahmet S. Aktürk, 916-17

G.I. Messiahs: Soldiering, War, and American Civil Religion, by Jonathan H. Ebel, reviewed by Sarah Miglio, 918-19

Secret Science: A Century of Poison Warfare and Human Experiments, by Ulf Schmidt, reviewed by Mark Walker, 919-21

Air Warfare: History, Theory and Practice, by Peter Gray, reviewed by Scott E. McIntosh, 922-23

The Maisky Diaries: Red Ambassador to the Court of St. James’s, 1932-1943, edited by Gabriel Gorodetsky, reviewed by Kees Boterbloem, 923-25

General Maxime Weygand, 1867-1965: Fortune and Misfortune, by Anthony Clayton, reviewed by Andrew Orr, 925-26

Marshal K. K. Rokossovsky: The Red Army’s Gentleman Commander, by Boris Sokolov, reviewed by Brigit Farley, 927-28

The Japanese Comfort Women and Sexual Slavery during the China and Pacific Wars, by Caroline Norma, reviewed by Yasuko Sato, 929-30

Nanjing 1937: Battle for a Doomed City, by Peter Harmsen, reviewed by Yan Xu, 930-32

Free French Africa in World War II: The African Resistance, by Eric T. Jennings, reviewed by Melissa K. Byrnes, 932-34

Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance, by Robert Gildea, reviewed by Jeffrey H. Jackson, 934-35

Stalingrad: The City that Defeated the Third Reich, by Jochen Hellbeck, reviewed by Steven Merritt Miner, 936-38

Fremantle’s Submarines: How Allied Submariners and Western Australians Helped to Win the War in the Pacific, by Michael Sturma, reviewed by Harold J. Goldberg, 938-40

The Battle of Leyte Gulf: The Last Fleet Action, by H. P. Willmott, reviewed by Stephen K. Stein, 940-41

The Tokyo Rose Case: Treason on Trial, by Yasuhide Kawashima, reviewed by Kazuo Yagami, 941-42

German Historians and the Bombing of German Cities: The Contested Air War, by Bas von Benda-Beckmann, reviewed by Douglas Carl Peifer, 942-43

Allies in Memory: World War II and the Politics of Transatlantic Commemoration, c. 1941–2001, by Sam Edwards, reviewed by David Hein, 943-45

Army and Nation: The Military and Indian Democracy since Independence, by Stephen I. Wilkinson, reviewed by Brian Caton, 945-46

The Life and Times of General China: Mau Mau and the End of Empire in Kenya, edited by Myles Osborne, reviewed by Huw Bennett, 946-48

Unified Military Industries of the Soviet Bloc: Hungary and the Division of Labor in Military Production, by Pál Germuska, reviewed by Charles William Carter, 948-50

American Justice in Taiwan: The 1957 Riots and Cold War Foreign Policy, by Stephen G. Craft, reviewed by Gary Solis, 950-51

Spies and Shuttles: NASA’s Secret Relationship with the DoD and CIA, by James E. David, reviewed by Peter A. Shulman, 953-54

War in the Shallows: U.S. Navy Coastal and Riverine Warfare in Vietnam, 1965-1968, by John Darrell Sherwood, reviewed by Jeremy Maxwell, 954-55

In the Line of Duty: Army Art, 1965-2014, edited by Sarah G. Forgey, Gene Snyder, and Pablo Jimenez-Reyes, reviewed by Austin Porter, 956-57

South Africa’s ‘Border War’: Contested Narratives and Conflicting Memories, by Gary Baines, reviewed by Tim Stapleton, 957-59

The Rise of the Military Welfare State, by Jennifer Mittelstadt, reviewed by Abbylin H. Sellers, 960-61

Nixon’s Nuclear Specter: The Secret Alert of 1969, Madman Diplomacy, and the Vietnam War, by William Burr and Jeffrey P. Kimball, reviewed by Sean L. Malloy, 961-63

Richard Nixon and the Vietnam War: The End of the American Century, by David F. Schmitz, reviewed by Edward Miller, 963-64

Australia and the Vietnam War: The Essential History, by Peter Edwards, reviewed by Carl Bridge, 964-66

The Landscape of Silence: Sexual Violence against Men in War, by Amalendu Misra, reviewed by Mario M. Ruiz, 966-68

Outsourcing Security: Private Military Contractors and U.S. Foreign Policy, by Bruce E. Stanley, reviewed by Amy J. Rutenberg, 968-69

The Markets for Force: Privatization of Security across World Regions, edited by Molly Dunigan and Ulrich Petersohn, reviewed by Jeremy Kuzmarov, 969-71

The Role and Limitations of Technology in U.S. Counterinsurgency Warfare, by Richard W. Rubright, reviewed by Brian D’Haeseleer, 971-73

Other Pasts, Different Presents, Alternative Futures, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Fredric Smoler, 973-74

The Evolution of Cyber War: International Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons, by Brian M. Mazanec, reviewed by Nicholas Michael Sambaluk, 975-76

Pakistan’s Enduring Challenges, edited by C. Christine Fair and Sarah J. Watson, reviewed by Sara Haroon, 976-78

BOOKS RECEIVED: 979-83
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 984-93
DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS IN MILITARY HISTORY: 994-1000