Journal of Military History
Vol. 79, No. 1
January 2015

Articles

“‘[T]he zealous activity of Capt. Lee’: Light-Horse Harry Lee and Petite Guerre,” by Ricardo A. Herrera, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 9-36
The Continental Army entrusted many of its junior officers with a great degree of responsibility and autonomy. Captain Henry Lee’s role in commanding a vital foraging operation in Delaware and Maryland for the Main Army at Valley Forge in February and March 1778 sheds light on the role of a company-grade officer within the broader framework of petite guerre. Lee demonstrated his ability at planning and executing autonomous operations and proved himself a capable, thoughtful, and energetic officer in an important, but overlooked expedition that reveals something of the important operational middle ground occupied by American company-grade light officers.
“‘Caught in the Crossfire’: Sir Gerald Campbell, Lord Beaverbrook and the Near Demise of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, May–October 1940,” by Kent Fedorowich, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 37-68
This essay examines a highly significant but little known incident—the “Campbell affair”—during the first six months of Winston Churchill’s premiership (May–October 1940). As the Battle of Britain raged, an equally important campaign was waged between the Air Ministry and the new Ministry of Aircraft Production, headed by the bumptious Canadian-born peer, Lord Beaverbrook. Corrosive remarks by Beaverbrook, which were reported to Canada’s mercurial premier, W. L. Mackenzie King, and then relayed back to London by Sir Gerald Campbell, Britain’s high commissioner in Ottawa, threatened not only to unhinge Anglo-Canadian wartime relations at a pivotal juncture of the war, but also to jettison the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
“The Failure of Japanese Land-Sea Cooperation during the Second World War: Hong Kong and the South China Coast as an Example, 1942–1945,” by Chi Man Kwong, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 69-91
This article looks at the failure of the Japanese Army and Navy to use Hong Kong to control the South China coast between 1942 and 1945. This was the result of their inability to cooperate at the strategic and operational levels and also of their shortage of resources. In addition, the flawed shipping-protection tactics adopted by the Japanese Navy, the incomplete control of the Japanese forces over the South China coast, and the resistance of Allied guerrilla and intelligence units, all helped prevent Hong Kong from becoming a useful base for the Japanese. The Japanese sought to dominate the South China Sea through a huge land offensive, but the costly campaign did not alter the course of the war.
“‘In the Name of the Queen’: Military Trials of Japanese War Criminals in the Netherlands East Indies (1946-1949),” by Fred L. Borch, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 93-125
After World War II, the colonial government in the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) prosecuted more than 1,000 Japanese nationals for war crimes committed against mostly Dutch and Indonesian citizens during the Japanese occupation of the NEI (1942-1945). This article examines the unique Dutch approach to prosecuting war crimes at so-called “Temporary Courts-Martial,” including the applicable rules governing evidence, jurisdiction, and punishment. It also looks at representative war crimes trials by offense and analyzes death and non-death sentences imposed by the tribunals. Finally, it offers some overall conclusions about these trials in military legal history.
“‘Without Mercy’—U.S. Strategic Intelligence and Finland in the Cold War,” by Jukka Rislakki, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 127-49
During the Cold War, U.S. intelligence agencies spared no effort to get tactical and strategic information about Finland and its neighbors in order to route bombers and missiles over Finland, to select targets for nuclear strikes, and to plan coastal landings. Especially during the last years of the Cold War, Finnish military intelligence secretly channeled information to the Americans without notifying Finland’s political leadership. Washington gave the Finns military information on Soviet bloc countries on a quid pro quo basis. Although Finland was bound to the Soviet Union by a friendship treaty of a military nature, it seems that the Finnish armed forces actually were prepared to fight the Soviets alongside the West.
“‘A Precedent Worth Setting . . .’ Military Humanitarianism: The U.S. Military and the 1975 Vietnamese Evacuation,” by Jana K. Lipman, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 151-79
As the Saigon government collapsed in 1975, the U.S. military evacuated more than 100,000 Vietnamese to the United States. Framed by congressional distrust of military action, the shift to the All-Volunteer Force, and the integration of women into the armed forces, this refugee operation marked a turning point in how the U.S. military perceived humanitarian operations. “Military” and “humanitarian” work co-existed in an uneasy balance, yet over time, operations that might be seen as routine, or even feminized, gained political value. Defining the 1975 Vietnamese evacuation as humanitarian thus became a telling precedent in the military’s growing scope of operations.
Review Essay:

“U.S. Army Campaigns of the War of 1812,” by Donald E. Graves, The Journal of Military History, 79:1 (January 2015): 181-85

Reviews:
Reconsidering the American Way of War: US Military Practice from the Revolution to Afghanistan, by Antulio J. Echevarria II, reviewed by Thomas Bruscino and by Jeremy Black, 187-90

Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia, by Kaushik Roy, reviewed by Douglas M. Peers, 190-91

The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, edited by Michael Maas, reviewed by Patrick Hunt, 192-93

Fields of Blood: Religion and the History of Violence, by Karen Armstrong, reviewed by David Hein, 193-94

Pope Gregory X and the Crusades, by Phillip B. Baldwin, reviewed by Kenneth R. Oziah, 195

Scotland and the British Army, 1700-1750: Defending the Union, by Victoria Henshaw, reviewed by Edward M. Furgol, 196-97

The Tuscarora War: Indians, Settlers, and the Fight for the Carolina Colonies, by David La Vere, reviewed by Philip Garland, 197-98

Presidents and Their Generals: An American History of Command in War, by Matthew Moten, reviewed by Thomas E. Ricks, 199-200

The Battle of Oriskany and General Nicholas Herkimer, by Paul A. Boehlert, reviewed by Thomas M. Barker, 200-1

Napoleon in Italy: The Sieges of Mantua, 1796-1799, by Phillip R. Cuccia, reviewed by Frederick C. Schneid, 201-3

Women in the Peninsular War, by Charles J. Esdaile, reviewed by Barton C. Hacker, 203-4

Neither Victor nor Vanquished: America and the War of 1812, by William Weber, reviewed by Donald R. Hickey, 205-6

The Waterloo Archive, Vol. V: German Sources, edited by Gareth Glover, reviewed by Michael V. Leggiere, 206-7

The Military and Colonial Destruction of the Roman Landscape of North Africa, 1830-1900, by Michael Greenhalgh, reviewed by Kenneth J. Perkins, 207-8

Military Culture and Popular Patriotism in Late Imperial Austria, by Laurence Cole, reviewed by Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., 209-10

The French-Piedmontese Campaign of 1859/La Campagna Franco-Piedmontese del 1859, by Frederick C. Schneid, reviewed by Geoffrey Wawro, 211-12

Northern Slave, Black Dakota: The Life and Times of Joseph Godfrey, by Walt Bachman, reviewed by Stephen E. Osman, 212-13

A Gunner in Lee’s Army: The Civil War Letters of Thomas Henry Carter, edited by Graham T. Dozier, reviewed by Andrew S. Bledsoe, 213-15

Transforming Civil War Prisons: Lincoln, Lieber, and the Politics of Captivity, by Paul Springer and Glenn Robins, reviewed by Robert C. Doyle, 215-16

Columns of Vengeance: Soldiers, Sioux, and the Punitive Expeditions, 1863-1864, by Paul N. Beck, reviewed by William E. Lass, 216-18

Engineering War and Peace in Modern Japan, 1868-1964, by Takashi Nishiyama, reviewed by D. Colin Jaundrill, 218-19

Inventing the Way of the Samurai: Nationalism, Internationalism, and Bushido in Modern Japan, by Oleg Benesch, reviewed by Nathan H. Ledbetter, 219-20

American Carnage: Wounded Knee, 1890, by Jerome A. Greene, reviewed by William A. Dobak, 221-22

The Currents of War: A New History of American-Japanese Relations, 1899-1941, by Sidney Pash, reviewed by Peter Mauch, 222-23

The Hidden Perspective: The Military Conversations 1906-1914, by David Owen, reviewed by David R. Woodward, 224-25

American Arsenal: A Century of Waging War, by Patrick Coffey, reviewed by Ralph Hitchens, 225-26

Beyond the Balance of Power: France and the Politics of National Security in the Era of the First World War, by Peter Jackson, reviewed by Elizabeth Greenhalgh, 226-27

The Great War Dawning: Germany and its Army at the Start of World War I, by Frank Buchholz, Janet Robinson, and Joe Robinson, reviewed by Antulio J. Echevarria II, 228-29

The Darkest Days: The Truth Behind Britain’s Rush to War, 1914, by Douglas Newton, reviewed by William Mulligan, 229-30

The Outbreak of the First World War; Structure, Politics and Decision-Making, edited by Jack S. Levy and John A. Vasquez, reviewed by David Hamlin, 230-31

Teddy Roosevelt and Leonard Wood: Partners in Command, by John S. D. Eisenhower; and Never Call Retreat: Theodore Roosevelt and the Great War, by J. Lee Thompson, reviewed by Dean A. Nowowiejski, 232-34

Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I, by Alexander Watson, reviewed by Holger H. Herwig, 234-35

The Siege of Kut-al-Amara: At War in Mesopotamia 1915-1916, by Nikolas Gardner, reviewed by David French, 235-36

The British Imperial Army in the Middle East: Morale and Military Identity in the Sinai and Palestine Campaigns, 1916-1918, by James E. Kitchen, reviewed by Yigal Sheffy, 237-38

The First World War, Vol. I: Global War; The First World War, Vol. II: The State; The First World War, Vol. III: Civil Society, edited by Jay Winter, reviewed by Len Shurtleff, 239-40

World War I and Propaganda, edited by Troy R. E. Paddock, reviewed by Stephen Badsey, 241-42

Skilled and Resolute: A History of the 12th Evacuation Hospital and the 212th MASH, 1917-2006, by Sanders Marble, reviewed by Bobby Alan Wintermute, 242-43

An Historian in Peace and War: The Diaries of Harold Temperley, edited by T. G. Otte, reviewed by Priscilla Roberts, 244-45

The Impact of the First World War on U.S. Policymakers: American Strategic and Foreign Policy Formulation, 1938-1942, by Michael G. Carew, reviewed by Donald B. Connelly, 246-47

Arming the Nation for War: Mobilization, Supply, and the American War Effort in World War II, by Robert P. Patterson, reviewed by Terrence J. Gough, 247-48

The Stalingrad Trilogy, Volume 3, Endgame at Stalingrad, Book One: November 1942; and The Stalingrad Trilogy, Volume 3, Endgame at Stalingrad, Book Two: December 1942-February 1943, by David M. Glantz with Jonathan M. House, reviewed by Alexander Hill, 249-50

Evans Carlson, Marine Raider: The Man Who Commanded America’s First Special Forces, by Duane Schultz, reviewed by Frank Kalesnik, 251-52

Dog Company: The Boys of Pointe du Hoc: The Rangers Who Accomplished D-Day’s Toughest Mission and Led the Way Across Europe, by Patrick K. O’Donnell, reviewed by Joseph R. Fischer, 252-54

Range Wars: The Environmental Contest for White Sands Missile Range, by Ryan H. Edgington, reviewed by Thomas H. Guthrie, 254-56

Spare Not the Brave: The Special Activities Group in Korea, by Richard L. Kiper, reviewed by Jim Cloninger, 256-57

The Ashgate Research Companion to the Korean War, edited by James I. Matray and Donald W. Boose, Jr., reviewed by Bryan R. Gibby, 257-58

Misalliance: Ngo Dinh Diem, the United States, and the Fate of South Vietnam, by Edward Miller, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 259-60

From Kutch to Tashkent: The Indo—Pakistan War of 1965, by Farooq Bajwa, reviewed by John H. Gill, 260-62

In the Shadow of the Greatest Generation: The Americans Who Fought the Korean War, by Melinda L. Pash, reviewed by William M. Donnelly, 262-63

Strategy in Asia: The Past, Present, and Future of Regional Security, edited by Thomas G. Mahnken and Dan Blumenthal, reviewed by June Teufel Dreyer, 263-64

Knife Fights: A Memoir of Modern War in Theory and Practice, by John A. Nagl, reviewed by Daniel Moran, 265-66

Overreach: Delusions of Regime Change in Iraq, by Michael MacDonald, reviewed by Peter Mansoor, 266-67

Al-Shabaab in Somalia: The History and Ideology of a Militant Islamist Group: 2005-2012, by Stig Jarle Hansen, reviewed by Gervase Phillips, 267-68

BOOKS RECEIVED: 269-274
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 273-284