Journal of Military History
Vol. 74, No. 1
January 2010

Articles

Geoffrey Parker, “States Make War but Wars also Break States,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 11-34.
An unprecedented spate of wars and revolutions took place around the world in the mid-seventeenth century. Many contemporaries, followed by many historians, have argued that the former caused the latter; few have considered other factors. This essay seeks to clarify the issues at the heart of the “General Crisis Debate” among early modern historians by examining evidence from around the world, including newly available data on global climatic change. It concludes, first, that only a synergy between natural and man-made disasters produced state-breakdown; and, second, that “coping skills” critically affected the impact of these disasters.
Paul Kennedy, “History from the Middle: The Case of the Second World War,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 35-51.
Writing on modern warfare lately has tended to focus upon two vital but divergent trends, which might be termed the War from Above and War from Below schools of analysis. This essay concentrates instead upon the middle levels of warfare, drawing examples from mid-World War Two, where the chief operational objectives of the Allies were clearly established (at Casablanca, January 1943), but had yet to be realized. The realization of such military goals as defeat of the U-boat threat, or gaining domination of the air over Europe, in turn required breakthroughs that could only come from what one might term “the mid-level managers of war” -- inventors, scientists, civil servants, captains of naval squadrons, and commanders of air groups. Scholars of these campaigns have long recognized the importance of the changes that occurred at the operational level of war between 1943 and 1944; this essay offers a larger synthetic analysis of their argument.
Yuval Noah Harari, “Armchairs, Coffee, and Authority: Eye-witnesses and Flesh-witnesses Speak about War, 1100–2000,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 53-78.
Is it necessary to understand the experience of war in order to understand war? And is it possible to understand the experience of war at second hand? This article surveys how soldiers, scholars, and the general public approached and answered these questions from the eleventh century to the twentieth century. The article thereby offers a long-term history of war-witnessing, and of the authority it carried. It argues that the Middle Ages and early modern era were dominated by the eye-witness, who drew authority from the observation of objective facts. The late modern era is dominated by the flesh-witness, who draws authority from undergoing subjective experiences.
James A. Davis, “Musical Reconnaissance and Deception in the American Civil War,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 79-105.
Music was an omnipresent part of American Civil War battlefields, yet the role of music in tactical situations has received little scholarly attention. Firsthand accounts reveal that certain officers and enlisted men recognized and drew upon the communicative potential of military music. Alert scouts realized that field musicians and brass bands conveyed valuable information about the enemy position they were reconnoitering, while creative officers used both the connotative and denotative potential of music to enhance tactical deceptions. These occurrences affirm the intrinsic role that music played in the lives of nineteenth-century Americans while revealing an expanding awareness of battlefield psychology.
Andrew Gordon, “Time after Time in the Horn of Africa,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 107-144.
Andrew Gordon explores the joint, amphibious assault on the dervish stronghold of Illig, in Somaliland, in 1904. The operation exactly matched the task, and the skills employed were taken down from the Royal Navy’s shelf without rehearsal or conscious innovation. Those in command had not been to Staff College, yet at Illig one can check off today’s Principles of War, one by one. The quintessentially Victorian 'littoral warfare era' was soon eclipsed by the blue-water rivalry of the twentieth century, but it has enjoyed renewed interest at the start of the twenty-first—especially where the security condition of the Horn of Africa is concerned.
Raymond W. Westphal, Jr., “Postwar Planning: Parliamentary Politics and the Royal Navy, 1919-22,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 145-171.
The end of the First World War found Britain in dire economic straits, burdened with the costs of converting a wartime economy and straining under an enormous load of debt. As is often the case in such situations, politicians and the public looked to the budgets of the armed services for a large portion of the savings that would presumably enable economic recovery and restore fiscal rectitude. The Royal Navy was a major target of the cost-cutters in post-1918 Britain. Their demands for steep reductions in its budget, however, ran counter to the navy’s pursuit of parity with its new major rival, the USA, and its mission of two-ocean imperial defence. This article examines the budget battle that ensued through a close study of the 1919-1922 debates over Royal Navy appropriations bills in the British Parliament and in the British public at large.
Charles Esdaile, “Spain 1808 – Iraq 2003: Some Thoughts on the Use and Abuse of History,” The Journal of Military History 74 #1 (January 2010): 173-188.
This article examines the frequent comparisons drawn between the American intervention in Iraq in 2003 and the French intervention in Spain in 1808. In brief, George Bush and Napoleon Bonaparte have been said to have been driven by the same motivation--according to taste, imperialism, hubris or misplaced crusading fervor--and to have achieved the same result, namely an unwinnable guerrilla war fuelled by xenophobia and fundamentalist religion. Whilst no attempt is made to attack the opposition to the war in Iraq from which these claims stem, it is here argued that they rest on a false impression of the Peninsular War of 1808-14 that is in large part derived from, first, the construction of a national myth in nineteenth-century Spain, and, second, the desire of French veterans and historians to explain away Napoleon’s defeat in Spain and legitimise his cause. In short, then, this article argues that, just as intelligence was spun to support the cause of intervention, so history has been spun to support its anti-thesis.
Historiographical Essay:
Alexander Mikaberidze, “Recent Trends in the Russian Historiography of the Napoleonic Wars,” 189-194.

Review Essay:
Bruce Vandervort, “Remembering the Empire of France in America,” 195-199.

Reviews:
The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China, by Jay Taylor, reviewed by Robert A. Kapp and by Gerrit van der Wees, 201-204.

Once Upon a Time in War: The 99th Division in World War II, by Robert E. Humphrey, reviewed by John C. McManus and by A. Harding Ganz , 204-207.

Vietnam: The History of an Unwinnable War, 1945-1975, by John Prados, reviewed by Mark Moyar and by John M. Carland, 207-212.

Military Orientalism: Eastern War Through Western Eyes, by Patrick Porter, reviewed by Robert Johnson, 212-214.

How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower, by Adrian Goldsworthy, reviewed by Carolyn Nelson, 214-215.

The Prior of the Knights Hospitaller in Late Medieval England, by Simon Phillips, reviewed by David S. Bachrach, 215-217.

The Virgin Warrior: The Life and Death of Joan of Arc, by Larissa Juliet Taylor, reviewed by David J. Hay, 217-218.

Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe, by John A. Lynn II, reviewed by Olwen Hufton, 218-219.

The Indian Militia and Description of the Indies, by Captain Bernardo de Vargas Machuca, translated by Timothy F. Johnson, edited by Kris Lane, reviewed by Patricia Seed, 219-221.

The Age of the Ship of the Line: The British and French Navies, 1650-1815, by Jonathan R. Dull, reviewed by Sam Willis, 221-222.

The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe, by Andrew Wheatcroft, reviewed by Karl A. Roider, 222-224.

War on the Run: The Epic Story of Robert Rogers and the Conquest of America’s First Frontier, by John F. Ross, reviewed by Frank Kalesnik, 224-225.

De Broglie's Armada: A Plan for the Invasion of England, 1765-1777, translated with critical analysis by Sudipta Das, reviewed by James Pritchard, 225-226.\

Borderlines in Borderlands: James Madison and the Spanish-American Frontier, 1776-1821, by J. C. A. Stagg, reviewed by David S. Heidler, 226-227.

Long, Obstinate, and Bloody: The Battle of Guilford Courthouse, by Lawrence E. Babits and Joshua B. Howard, reviewed by John R. Maass, 227-228.

In Pursuit of Liberty: Coming of Age in the American Revolution, by Emmy E. Werner, reviewed by Linda Grant DePauw, 228-229.

First Strike: Preemptive War in Modern History, by Matthew J. Flynn, reviewed by Ralph Hitchens, 230-231.

The Legacy of the French Revolutionary Wars: The Nation-in-Arms in French Republican Memory, by Alan Forrest, reviewed by Dale Lothrop Clifford, 231-232.

Napoleon's Apogee: Pascal Bressonnet's Tactical Studies 1806. Saalfeld, Jena and Auerstädt, translated and annotated by Scott Bowden, reviewed by Robert M. Epstein, 233-234.

Peninsular Eyewitnesses: The Experience of War in Spain and Portugal, 1808-1815, by Charles Esdaile, reviewed by Erica Charters, 234-235.

American Courage, American Carnage: The 7th Infantry Regiment’s Combat Experience, 1812 through World War II, by John C. McManus, reviewed by Peter Mansoor, 235-237.

The 7th Infantry Regiment, Combat in an Age of Terror –the Korean War through the Present, by John C. McManus, reviewed by William W. Epley, 237-238.

Strange Fatality: The Battle of Stoney Creek, 1813, by James E. Elliot, reviewed by John R. Grodzinski, 239-240.

Under the Flags of Freedom: Slave Soldiers and the Wars of Independence in Spanish South America, by Peter Blanchard, reviewed by Christon I. Archer, 240-241.

Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies in the Black Hawk War, by John W. Hall, reviewed by Roger L. Nichols, 241-242.

Historical Dictionary of the Zulu Wars, by John Laband, reviewed by James O. Gump, 242-243.

Eagles and Empire: The United States, Mexico, and the Struggle for a Continent, by David A. Clary, reviewed by Timothy D. Johnson, 243-245.

Japan’s Imperial Army: Its Rise and Fall, 1853-1945, by Edward J. Drea, reviewed by Stewart Lone, 245-246.

The Moltke Myth: Prussian War Planning, 1857-1871, by Terence Zuber, reviewed by D. E. Showalter, 246-247.

Unfurl Those Colors! McClellan, Sumner, & The Second Army Corps in the Antietam Campaign, by Marion V. Armstrong, Jr., reviewed by Terry Beckenbaugh, 248-249.

New Mexico Territory during the Civil War: Wallen and Evans Inspection Reports, 1862-1863, edited by Jerry D. Thompson, reviewed by Joseph G. Dawson III, 249-250.

Robert E. Lee and the Fall of the Confederacy, 1863-1865, by Ethan S. Rafuse, reviewed by Kavin L. Coughenour, 250-251.

Broken Treaties: United States and Canadian Relations with the Lakotas and the Plains Cree, 1868-1885, by Jill St. Germain, reviewed by Andrew R. Graybill, 252.

Wolseley and Ashanti: The Ashanti War Journal and Correspondence of Major General Sir Garnet Wolseley 1873-1874, edited by Ian F. W. Beckett, reviewed by Edward M. Spiers, 253-254.

Unzivilisierte Kriege im zivilisierten Europa? Die Balkankriege und die öffentliche Meinung in Deutschland, England und Irland 1876-1913, by Florian Keisinger, reviewed by Stefan Goebel, 254-255.

The Namesake: the Biography of Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., by Robert W. Walker, reviewed by Mannie Liscum, 255-256.

The Last Century of Sea Power, Vol. 1: From Port Arthur to Chanak, 1894-1922, by H. P. Willmott, reviewed by Lawrence Sondhaus, 256-257.

Ethical Leadership in Turbulent Times: Modeling the Public Career of George C. Marshall, by Gerald M. Pops, reviewed by Daun van Ee, 258-259.

The Old Guard in 1898: A Short History of the Third United States Infantry Regiment, by Richard M. Lytle, reviewed by Daniel R. Beaver, 259.

Memories of Two Wars: Cuban and Philippine Experiences, by Frederick Funston, reviewed by Graham A. Cosmas, 260-261.

Historical Dictionary of the Anglo-Boer War, by Fransjohan Pretorius, reviewed by Stephen M. Miller, 261-262.

Ernst Röhm: Hitler’s SA Chief of Staff, by Eleanor Hancock, reviewed by Mark M. Hull, 262-263.

Strategy and Command: The Anglo-French Coalition on the Western Front, 1914, by Roy A. Prete, reviewed by Elizabeth Greenhalgh, 263-265.

"We who are so cosmopolitan": The War Diary of Constance Graeffe, 1914-1915, by Sophie de Schaepdrijver, reviewed by Wim Klinkert, 265-266.

World War One: A Short History, by Norman Stone, reviewed by Michael S. Neiberg, 266-267.

The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front 1915-1919, by Mark Thompson, reviewed by John Gooch, 267-268.

Gallipoli: The End of the Myth, by Robin Prior, reviewed by Nicholas A. Lambert, 268-270.

Before My Helpless Sight: Suffering, Dying and Military Medicine on the Western Front, by Leo van Bergen, reviewed by Kevin Brown, 270-271.

Unknown Soldiers: The American Expeditionary Forces in Memory & Remembrance, edited by Mark A. Snell, reviewed by Douglas V. Johnson II, 271-272.

Madness and the Military: Australia’s Experience of the Great War, by Michael Tyquin, reviewed by Edgar Jones, 273-274.

A More Unbending Battle: The Harlem Hellfighters’ Struggle for Freedom in WWI and Equality at Home, by Peter N. Nelson, reviewed by Lon Strauss, 274-275.

Media, Memory and the First World War, by David Williams, reviewed by Stephen Badsey, 275-276.

Mobility, Shock, and Firepower: The Emergence of the U.S. Army's Armor Branch, 1917-1945, by Robert S. Cameron, reviewed by Mark Calhoun, 276-277.

Hubert R. Harmon: Airman, Officer, Father of the Air Force Academy, by Phillip S. Meilinger, reviewed by Kristal Alfonso, 278-279.

Men on Iron Ponies: The Death and Rebirth of the Modern U.S. Cavalry, by Matthew Darlington Morton, reviewed by Eric Freiwald, 279-280.

Future Tense: The Culture of Anticipation in France Between the Wars, by Roxanne Panchasi, reviewed by Eugenia Kiesling, 280-282.

The German Invasion of Norway April 1940, by Geirr H. Haarr, reviewed by Jonathan Epstein, 282-283.

The Longest Siege: Tobruk – The Battle that Saved North Africa, by Robert Lyman, reviewed by Martijn Lak, 283-284.

Wehrmacht im Ostkrieg. Front und Militaerisches Hinterland 1941/42, by Christian Hartmann, reviewed by Craig Luther, 284-286.

United States Marine Corps Generals of World War II: A Biographical Dictionary, by George B. Clark, reviewed by Colin M. Colbourn, 286-287.

Sydney, Cipher and Search: Solving the Last Great Naval Mystery of the Second World War, by Peter Hore, reviewed by Robin Higham, 287.

Tears in the Darkness: The Story of the Bataan Death March and Its Aftermath, by Michael Norman and Elizabeth M. Norman, reviewed by Stanley L. Falk, 288-289.

Attack of the Airacobras: Soviet Aces, American P-39s, and the Air War against Germany, by Dmitriy Loza, translated and edited by James F. Gebhardt, reviewed by Kenneth P. Werrell, 289-290.

Shadows of Slaughterhouse Five: Recollections and Reflections of the American Ex-POWs of Schlachthof Fünf, Dresden, Germany, by Ervin E. Szpek, Jr. and Frank J. Idzikowski, edited by Heidi M. Szpek, reviewed by Robert C. Doyle, 290-291.

Deciphering the Rising Sun: Navy and Marine Codebreakers, Translators and Interpreters in the Pacific War, by Roger Dingman, reviewed by E. Bruce Reynolds, 291-292.

Falaise, The Flawed Victory: The Destruction of Panzergruppe West, August 1944, by Anthony Tucker-Jones, reviewed by Stephen Hart, 293-294.

Patton’s Peers: The Forgotten Allied Field Army Commanders of the Western Front, 1944-45, by John A. English, reviewed by Steven S. Minniear, 294-295.

The Science of Bombing: Operational Research in RAF Bomber Command, by Randall T. Wakelam, reviewed by Sebastian Ritchie, 295-296.

Steel Boat, Iron Hearts: A U-Boat Crewman's Life Aboard U-505, by Hans Goebeler with John Vanzo, reviewed by Mark R. Condeno, 296-297.

The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership, by Christopher R. Lew, reviewed by Gary J. Bjorge, 297-299.

From Hot War to Cold: The U.S. Navy and National Security Affairs, 1945-1955, by Jeffrey G. Barlow, reviewed by Mark R. Hagerott, 299-301.

Kesselring’s Last Battle: War Crimes Trials and Cold War Politics, by Kerstin von Lingen; and The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945-1958: Atrocity, Law and History, by Hilary Earl, reviewed by Fred L. Borch, 301-304.

The Candy Bombers: The Untold Story of the Berlin Airlift and America’s Finest Hour, by Andrei Cherny, reviewed by Hal Elliott Wert, 304-305.

The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the Cold War, by Nicholas Thompson, reviewed by Gail Yoshitani, 306-307.

War in European History, by Michael Howard, reviewed by Brian Holden Reid, 307-308.

Cold War Island: Quemoy on the Front Line, by Michael Szonyi, reviewed by June Teufel Dreyer, 308-309.

Mandarin Blue: RAF Chinese Linguists, 1951-1962, in the Cold War, by Reginald Hunt, Geoffrey Russell, and Keith Scott, reviewed by Katherine K. Reist, 309-310.

The Adaptive Optics Revolution: A History, by Robert W. Duffner, reviewed by William J. Astore, 310-311.

The Spy Who Loved Us: The Vietnam War and Pham Xuan An’s Dangerous Game, by Thomas A. Bass, reviewed by Jay Veith, 311-312.

Sea Service Medals: Military Awards and Decorations of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, by Fred L. Borch and Charles P. McDowell, reviewed by David T. Zabecki, 312-314.

Naval Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Operations: Stability from the Sea, edited by James J. Wirtz and Jeffrey A. Larsen, reviewed by Gordon E. Hogg, 314-315.

Blood and Capital: The Paramilitary of Colombia, by Jasmin Hristov, reviewed by Michael J. LaRosa, 315-317.

Paying the Human Costs of War: American Public Opinion & Casualties in Military Conflicts, by Christopher Gelpi, Peter D. Feaver, and Jason Reifer, reviewed by Walter E. Kretchik, 317-318.

A Question of Command: Counterinsurgency from the Civil War to Iraq, by Mark Moyar, reviewed by David Ucko, 318-320.

Treading on Hallowed Ground: Counterinsurgency Operations in Sacred Spaces, edited by C. Christine Fair and Sumit Ganguly, reviewed by David M. Witty, 320-322.

The Least Worst Place: Guantanamo’s First 100 Days, by Karen Greenberg, reviewed by Stephen Irving Max Schwab, 322-323.

The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One, by David Kilcullen, reviewed by Lester W. Grau, 323-324.

The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Bases, edited by Catherine Lutz, reviewed by Hal M. Friedman, 324-325.

Film Review Essay:
The Moroccan Labyrinth. Screenplay by Julio Sánchez Veiga. Video. Icarus Films. 2007. Reviewed by José E. Alvarez and by Geoffrey Jensen, 326-329.

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 330-337
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 338-340