Journal of Military History
Vol. 80, No. 4
October 2016

Articles

Commemorative Essay:

“Sesquicentennial Reflection on the Black Regulars,” by Frank N. Schubert, 1011-16
“Alexander’s Cavalry Charge at Chaeronea, 338 BCE,” by Matthew A. Sears and Carolyn Willekes, 1017-35
The Battle of Chaeronea, fought in 338 BCE between Philip of Macedon and the Greek city-states, is known only from meager literary evidence and a few archaeological finds. For decades, scholars had reconstructed the battle to include a cavalry charge led by Philip’s eighteen-year-old son, the future Alexander the Great. More recently, this cavalry charge has been called into question, primarily because of the supposed maxim that cavalry will not trample disciplined infantry. A reconsideration of the evidence, however, including skeletal remains from the battle and studies of equine behavior, suggests that Alexander’s charge was feasible.
“‘An Exodus to Nowhere’?: Victorio’s Tres Castillos Campaign, September–October 1880,” by Robert N. Watt, 1037-72
The 14-15 October 1880 battle of Tres Castillos in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, brought a dramatic end to the career of Victorio, one of the greatest military leaders of the Apache peoples of the American Southwest and northern Mexico. This article contends that Victorio’s defeat and death at the hands of Mexican troops at Tres Castillos did not come at the end of aimless wandering in the desert, as has been alleged. It marked, instead, the conclusion of a campaign that epitomized the distinctive strategies and tactics which characterized the Apache way of guerrilla warfare and that are worthy of continued study today.
“Memory, Myth and Forgetting: The Netherlands and the World Wars,” by Hubert van Tuyll, 1073-81
The Netherlands’ escape from the ‘hard hand of war’ in 1914-1918 was explained until this century through several myths, all of which painted the country as a passive player during the war. That these myths are now discredited is not new. What has been given little attention, however, is the impact of these myths on the Netherlands’ preparation for the next war, which it would not escape. The consequences of the country’s faulty historical memory would have an impact well beyond its own borders.
“A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Control: The German Military Occupation of France (1940–1942) and the American Military Occupation of Germany (1945–1949),” by Cora Sol Goldstein, 1083-1116
A transformative military occupation aimed at the radical ideological change of an occupied country must exercise cultural control. The occupiers must complement repression with propaganda and censorship to create new narratives and prohibit those deemed undesirable. Do transformative military occupations carried out by dictatorships and liberal democracies differ in the way in which they handle information control? I argue that the mechanisms of cultural control used by the Third Reich in France (1940–1942) and by the United States in Germany (1945–1949), shared significant similarities in spite of the fact that their respective agendas were inspired by opposite ideological tenets.
“One Battle and Two Accounts: The Turkish Brigade at Kunu-ri in November 1950,” by Mesut Uyar and Serhat Güvenç, 1117-47
The recent revival of academic and popular interest in the Korean War in Turkey has played an important role in instigating the production of new books and documentaries. In Turkish accounts the Battle of Kunu-ri (November 1950) figures more prominently than any other event during the entire conflict. However, the Turkish Brigade’s performance at this battle remains controversial. This paper assesses the impact of U.S. military assistance on Turkish military’s transformation, compares and contrasts the official U.S. and Turkish accounts of the battle (known in U.S. sources as the Battle of Chongchon), and discusses why the official perspectives of the engagement diverge substantially.
“Orphan of the Mekong Delta: The Army-Navy Mobile Riverine Force,” by Edward J. Marolda, 1149-81
After the Communist Tet Offensive of 1968, General William Westmoreland, commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam, supposedly credited the Army-Navy Mobile Riverine Force (MRF) with having “saved the [Mekong] Delta” for the allied cause. The MRF drove enemy forces from key population centers and decimated the Viet Cong main force units that stood and fought them. But in August 1969, General Creighton Abrams, Westmoreland’s successor, disbanded the MRF. Despite the MRF’s impressive battle history, Army and Navy leaders never fully embraced the creation, development, or operational deployment of one of the few truly joint-service units of the Vietnam War.

Reviews:
The Struggle for North America, 1754–1758: Britain’s Tarnished Laurels, by George Yagi, reviewed by Holly A. Mayer and by Paul Kopperman, 1183-86

Vikings in the South: Voyages to Iberia and the Mediterranean, by Ann Christys, reviewed by Joel D. Anderson, 1186-87

The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation and the Rise of the West in World History, by Tonio Andrade, reviewed by Shellen X. Wu, 1187-89

Merchant Crusaders in the Aegean, 1291-1352, by Mike Carr, reviewed by Sarah Davis-Secord, 1189-91

War and Society in Afghanistan from the Mughals to the Americans, 1500-2013, by Kaushik Roy, reviewed by Brandon D. Marsh, 1191-93

Bacteria and Bayonets: The Impact of Disease in American Military History, by David R. Petriello, reviewed by Jeffrey Allen Smith, 1193-94

A Warrior Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of Sweden as a Military Superpower, 1611-1721, by Henrik O. Lunde, reviewed by Erik Thomson, 1195-96

Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History, edited by David T. Zabecki, reviewed by Eric W. Osborne, 1196-97

The British Navy in the Baltic, by John D. Grainger, reviewed by John C. Mitcham, 1197-98

Boy Soldiers of the Revolution, by Caroline Cox, reviewed by Derrick E. Lapp, 1199-1200

A Hercules in the Cradle: War, Money, and the American State, 1783-1867, by Max M. Edling, reviewed by Brian Steele, 1200-2

The Man Who Captured Washington: Major General Robert Ross and the War of 1812, by John McCavitt and Christopher T. George, reviewed by Peter J. Aschenbrenner, 1203-4

Lion in the Bay: The British Invasion of the Chesapeake, 1813-1814, by Stanley L. Quick with Chipp Reid, reviewed by Stanley J. Adamiak, 1204-6

Wellington’s Hidden Heroes: The Dutch and the Belgians at Waterloo, by Veronica Baker-Smith, reviewed by Andrew Ziebell, 1206-7

Marie Von Clausewitz: The Woman behind the Making of On War, by Vanya Eftimova Bellinger, reviewed by David Silbey, 1208-9

Embassy to the Eastern Courts: America’s Secret First Pivot toward Asia, 1832-1837, by Andrew C. Jampoler, reviewed by Brian Rouleau, 1209-11

The Crimean War in Imperial Context, 1854–1856, by Andrew C. Rath, reviewed by Howard J. Fuller, 1211-13

Navies and Soft Power: Historical Case Studies of Naval Power and the Nonuse of Military Force, edited by Bruce Elleman and S. C. M. Paine, reviewed by Mark Rutkowski, 1213-14

Warrior at Heart: Governor John Milton, King Cotton, and Rebel Florida, 1860-1865, by John A. Adams, Jr., reviewed by Christopher R. Mortenson, 1215-16

Extreme Civil War: Guerrilla Warfare, Environment, and Race on the Trans-Mississippi Frontier, by Matthew Stith, reviewed by D. H. Dilbeck, 1216-17

When the Wolf Came: The Civil War and the Indian Territory, by Mary Jane Warde, reviewed by Jeff Fortney, 1218-19

Californio Lancers: The 1st Battalion of Native Cavalry in the Far West, 1863-1866, by Tom Prezelski, reviewed by Paul Bryan Gray, 1219-21

Inventing Custer: The Making of an American Legend, by Edward Caudill and Paul Ashdown, reviewed by Steven A. Bare, 1221-23

Health of the Seventh Cavalry: A Medical History, edited by P. Willey and Douglas D. Scott, reviewed by Ben Cater, 1223-24

The Gray Fox: George Crook and the Indian Wars, by Paul Magid, reviewed by Mark Eickhoff, 1225-26

Britannia’s Shield: Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Hutton and Late-Victorian Imperial Defense, by Craig Stockings, reviewed by Kenneth E. Hendrickson. 1226-28

An Imperfect Occupation: Enduring the South African War, by John Boje, reviewed by Aidan Forth, 1228-29

A Sense of Power: The Roots of America’s Global Role, by John A. Thompson, reviewed by Stephen R. Porter, 1230-31

Winston Churchill Reporting: Adventures of a Young War Correspondent, by Simon Read, reviewed by Laura E. Nym Mayhall, 1231-33

Nursing Civil Rights: Gender and Race in the Army Nurse Corps, by Charissa J. Threat, reviewed by Matthew Johnson, 1233-34

Maneuver and Battle in the Mexican Revolution: Rise of the Praetorians, by Joe Lee Janssens, reviewed by Mark Wasserman, 1234-36

War in the Balkans: Conflict and Diplomacy before World War I, edited by James Pettifer and Tom Buchanan, reviewed by RoseMarie T. Eichler, 1236-38

A Century of Conflict: War 1914-2014, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Geoffrey Wawro, 1238-40

Poppyganda: The Historical & Social Impact of a Flower, by Matthew Leonard, reviewed by Alexander Nordlund, 1240-41

The 1916 Irish Rebellion, by Bríona Nic Dhiarmada and Remembering 1916: The Easter Rising, the Somme and the Politics of Ireland, edited by Richard S. Grayson and Fearghal McGarry, reviewed by Paul V. Walsh, 1241-43

The “Russian” Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years that Shook the World, by Jonathan D. Smele, reviewed by Steven G. Marks, 1243-45

Crisis at Sea: The United States Navy in European Waters, 1917–1918, by William N. Still, Jr., reviewed by William S. Dudley, 1245-47

Russia’s Sisters of Mercy and the Great War: More than Binding Men’s Wounds, by Laurie S. Stoff, reviewed by Sharon A. Kowalsky, 1247-49

The Silent Morning: Culture and Memory after the Armistice, edited by Trudi Tate and Kate Kennedy, reviewed by Carolyn Malone, 1249-50

The Last Calvaryman: The Life of General Lucian K. Truscott, Jr., by Harvey Ferguson, reviewed by Robert Saxe, 1250-52

A Nation in Conflict: Canada and the Two World Wars, by Andrew Iarocci and Jeffrey A. Keshen, reviewed by Rebecca Mancuso, 1252-53

The Chaco War: Environment, Ethnicity, and Nationalism, edited by Bridget Maria Chesterton, reviewed by Heather Thiessen-Reily, 1253-55

When Britain Saved the West: The Story of 1940, by Robin Prior, reviewed by Raymond Callahan, 1255-56

The Desperate Diplomat: Saburo Kurusu’s Memoir of the Weeks before Pearl Harbor, edited by J. Garry Clifford and Masako R. Okura, reviewed by David T. Fuhrmann, 1257-58

Deceit on the Road to War: Presidents, Politics, and American Democracy, by John M. Schuessler, reviewed by Jennifer M. Taw, 1258-59

The Little Third Reich on Lake Superior: A History of Canadian Internment Camp R, by Ernest Robert Zimmermann, reviewed by Anna Marie Anderson, 1259-61

Mussolini’s Army in the French Riviera: Italy’s Occupation of France, by Emanuele Sica, reviewed by Eden McLean, 1261-62

Daily Life in Wartime Japan, 1940-1945, by Samuel Hideo Yamashita, reviewed by David R. Ambaras, 1263-64

Ministers at War: Winston Churchill and His War Cabinet, by Jonathan Schneer, reviewed by Scott Manning, 1264-66

Stalin’s Favorite: The Combat History of the 2nd Guards Tank Army from Kursk to Berlin. Vol. 1: January 1943–June 1944, by Igor Nebolsin, translated and edited by Stuart Britton, reviewed by David R. Stone, 1266-67

Ardennes 1944: The Battle of the Bulge, by Anthony Beevor, reviewed by Matthew Hughes, 1267-69

Eisenhower’s Thorn on the Rhine: The Battles for the Colmar Pocket, 1944-1945, by Nathan N. Prefer, reviewed by Cameron Zinsou, 1269-71

Stopping the Panzers: The Untold Story of D-Day, by Marc Milner, reviewed by Donald E. Graves, 1271-72

Burning Japan: Air Force Bombing Strategy Change in the Pacific, by Daniel T. Schwabe, reviewed by Mark Parillo, 1272-74

Hell before Their Very Eyes: American Soldiers Liberate Concentration Camps in Germany, April 1945, by John C. McManus and Distance from the Belsen Heap: Allied Forces and the Liberation of a Nazi Concentration Camp, by Mark Celinscak, reviewed by Nicholas J. Steneck, 1274-76

Churches and Religion in the Second World War, by Jan Bank with Lieve Gevers, translated by Brian Doyle, reviewed by Anne M. Blankenship, 1276-78

Demobilized Veterans in Late Stalinist Leningrad: Soldiers to Civilians, by Robert Dale, reviewed by Edward Cohn, 1278-79

Waging War, Planning Peace: U.S. Noncombat Operations and Major Wars, by Aaron Rapport, reviewed by Bryon Greenwald, 1280-81

A War of Logistics: Parachutes and Porters in Indochina, 1945-1954, by Charles R. Shrader, reviewed by Laura M. Calkins, 1281-83

A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections, by Brian Cloughley, reviewed by John H. Gill, 1283-84

Paying with Their Bodies: American War and the Problem of the Disabled Veteran, by John M. Kinder, reviewed by Jessica L. Adler, 1285-86

Spying through a Glass Darkly: American Espionage against the Soviet Union, 1945-1946, by David Alvarez and Eduard Mark, reviewed by David S. Foglesong, 1287-88

The Cold War Spy Pocket Manual: The Official Field-manuals for Espionage, Spycraft, and Counter-intelligence, edited by Philip Parker, reviewed by Jeffery A. Brooks, 1288-90

MacArthur's Korean War Generals, by Stephen R. Taaffe, reviewed by Zachary M. Matusheski, 1290-91

A Shau Valor: American Combat Operations in the Valley of Death, 1963-1971, by Thomas R. Yarborough, reviewed by Charles D. Melson, 1292-93

Clean Bombs and Dirty Wars: Air Power in Kosovo and Libya, by Robert H. Gregory, Jr., reviewed by Scott E. McIntosh, 1293-95

BOOKS RECEIVED: 1296-1300
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 1301-1310
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 1311-1316
INDEX TO VOLUME 80: 1317-1344