Journal of Military History
Vol. 80, No. 1
January 2016

Articles

Thomas Dodman, “1814 and the Melancholy of War,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 31-55
What does it feel like to witness the collapse of a regime? This article explores this question by looking at the end of the First French Empire as seen through the eyes of state officials, soldiers, and military doctors among others. I follow retreating French forces from 1814 through to the subsequent reconstruction of wartime memories in order to grasp an “inner life” of defeat dominated by related lethal epidemics of typhus and melancholy moods known to contemporaries as “nostalgia.” I argue that these experiences and sensibilities force us to rethink how the Napoleonic wars affected understandings of time and space.
Jacques Hantraye, “The Silence of the Woods: The 1815 Murder of a Prussian Soldier in Western France,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 57-76
At the end of the Napoleonic Era, France experienced three years of invasions and occupations that increased collective and inter-individual violence. This article analyzes an affair that occurred around Unverre, near Chartres, during the summer of 1815. While we still don’t know whether it constitutes an exception in a stream of receding violence or shows the persistence of deep-seated violence in rural France, this case illustrates the complications of the “end” of war within France.
Stéphane Calvet, “The Painful Demobilization of the Napoleonic Grande Armée’s Officers,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 77-92
The former officers of the Grande Armée have often been seen as die-hard supporters of Napoleon, with the government of the Bourbon Restoration viewing them with particularly acute suspicion. An in-depth study of the careers and trajectories of officers from the Charente (a department in western France known for its Bonapartism) shows how little these former combatants resemble the clichés painted by legend. In many ways, they were a heterogeneous group whose demobilization was complex and difficult. They nonetheless often shared both a desire to prove their loyalty to France and a continued hope that the state would recognize, both materially and symbolically, the sacrifices they had made in the name of the nation.
Christopher Tozzi, “Soldiers without a Country: Foreign Veterans in the Transition from Empire to Restoration,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 93-120
Despite the French state’s long history under the Old Regime and during the Revolution of favorable treatment toward foreign troops who served it, many of the foreign veterans present in France at the Napoleonic wars’ conclusion were ignored by the Restoration government. Meanwhile, some foreign troops were proscribed in their native countries for serving Napoleon. The experiences of these foreigners highlight three trends: the exclusion of foreign veterans from the program of social healing that the Restoration Bourbons undertook, the limits of the modern French state’s care for veterans, and the ambiguity of national identity after the revolutionary era.
Jennifer Heuer, “Soldiers as Victims or Villains? Demobilization, Masculinity, and Family in French Royalist Pamphlets, 1814–1815,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 121-44
Pamphlets provide an overlooked corpus for understanding the demobilization of French soldiers in 1814 and 1815. Royalists particularly used the format to persuade combatants to return to civilian life, invoking the wartime suffering of French families to convince both soldiers and civilians to support an uneasy peace and a potentially unpopular ruler. Their writings reveal competing visions of the value and legacy of martial masculinity. Pamphleteers were torn between seeing soldiers as the quintessential victims or most enthusiastic agents of Napoleonic rule, and as wounded men ready for peace or as selfish and relentless warmongers incapable of domesticity.
Morten Nordhagen Ottosen, “Ending War and Making Peace in Scandinavia, 1814–1848: ‘Peace Crisis,’ Demobilization, and Reconciliation,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 145-72
The Napoleonic wars had a tremendous impact on the Scandinavian countries. Political and social upheaval and economic disruption ensured that ending war was no straightforward or rapid process. For traumatized veterans and those who had lost a husband or father, war never quite ended, to say nothing of those who remained under military occupation even after the nominal conclusion of peace. Still, the parallel process of making peace after 1815 was quite remarkable in Scandinavia, as 300 years of bitter rivalry, enmity, and perpetual conflict rapidly gave way to reconciliation to a point where Scandinavian union was a more likely outcome than a future Scandinavian war.
Petter Wulff, “Artillery, Light and Heavy: Sardinia-Piedmont and Sweden in the Nineteenth Century,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 173-85
The artillery revolution of the nineteenth century came about partly through collaboration between southern and northern Europe. Their outlooks were quite different. In the south, the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont needed to go on the offensive beyond its borders to achieve its aim of creating a united Italy. In the north Sweden had the defensive aim of protecting its borders against an invading enemy. This situation called for two different kinds of artillery—light and movable in the south; heavy and powerful in the north. How the two countries, in spite of their different outlooks, came to be involved in a joint development of path-breaking artillery technology is the subject of this article.
William S. Dudley, “A Soldier, His Family, and the Impact of the Pacific War, 1942-1945,” The Journal of Military History, 80:1 (January 2016): 187-92

Reviews:
Clausewitz in his Time: Essays in the Cultural and Intellectual History of Thinking about War, by Peter Paret, reviewed by Beatrice Heuser, 193-94

Privateering: Patriots & Profits in the War of 1812, by Faye M. Kert, reviewed by Michael J. Crawford, 194-95

The Longest Afternoon: The 400 Men Who Decided the Battle of Waterloo, by Brendan Simms, reviewed by Clifford D. Harmon, 196-97

Napoleon on War, edited by Bruno Colson, translated by Gregory Elliott, reviewed by Lee W. Eysturlid, 197-98

Understanding Victory: Naval Operations from Trafalgar to the Falklands, by Geoffrey Till, reviewed by Stephen Paget, 198-200

Revisiting Napoleon’s Continental System: Local, Regional, and European Experiences, edited by Katherine Aaslestad and Johan Joor, reviewed by Sam A. Mustafa, 200-1

War in the Chesapeake: The British Campaign to Control the Bay, by Charles Patrick Neimeyer, reviewed by David Curtis Skaggs, 202-3

Wellington: Waterloo and the Fortunes of Peace, 1814-1852, by Rory Muir, reviewed by Edward J. Coss, 203-4

Braddock’s Defeat: The Battle of the Monongahela and the Road to Revolution, by David Preston, reviewed by Matthew J. Wayman and by Craig Bruce Smith, 205-8

Hungarian Émigrés in the American Civil War: A History and Biographical Dictionary, by István Kornél Vida, reviewed by Christian B. Keller and by Rae Bielakowski, 208-11

The War with the Ottoman Empire, by Jeffrey Grey, reviewed by Glyn Harper and by Matthew Hughes, 211-14

The Artist and the Warrior: Military History through the Eyes of the Masters, by Theodore K. Rabb, reviewed by Tim McCall, 215-16

Greece, Macedon and Persia: Studies in Social, Political and Military History in Honour of Waldemar Heckel, edited by Timothy Howe, E. Edward Garvin, and Graham Wrightson, reviewed by Michael D. Dixon, 216-17

Darius in the Shadow of Alexander, by Pierre Briant, reviewed by Fred S. Naiden, 217-19

The Norman Campaigns in the Balkans, by Georgios Theotokis, reviewed by Michael Decker, 219-20

The Formless Empire: A Short History of Diplomacy and Warfare in Central Asia, by Christopher Mott, reviewed by Timothy May, 221-22

War, Entrepreneurs and the State in Europe and the Mediterranean, 1300-1800, edited by Jeff Fynn-Paul, reviewed by Erik Thomson, 222-23

John Wyclif on War and Peace, by Rory Cox, reviewed by Brian R. Price, 224-25

Fighting for a Living: A Comparative History of Military Labour, 1500-2000, edited by Erik-Jan Zürcher, reviewed by David Parrott, 225-26

For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, by Richard Bassett, reviewed by Rian van Meeteren, 227-28

Carolina in Crisis: Cherokees, Colonists, and Slaves in the American Southeast, 1756-1763, by Daniel J. Tortora, reviewed by Jennifer Miller, 228-30

Adventurism and Empire: The Struggle for Mastery in the Louisiana-Florida Borderlands, 1762-1803, by David Narrett, reviewed by Andrew K. Frank, 230-31

Hessians: Mercenaries, Rebels, and the War for British North America, by Brady J. Crytzer, reviewed by Thomas M. Barker, 231-32

The Fatal Land: War, Empire, and the Highland Soldier in British America, by Matthew P. Dziennnik, reviewed by Edward M. Furgol, 233-24

For Liberty and the Republic: The American Citizen as Soldier, 1775-1861, by Ricardo A. Herrera, reviewed by Birte Pfleger, 234-36

Shays’s Rebellion: Authority and Distress in Post-Revolutionary America, by Sean Condon, reviewed by Richard V. Barbuto, 236-37

Crucible of Command: Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee—The War They Fought, the Peace They Forged, by William C. Davis, reviewed by Jennifer M. Murray, 237-38

Civil War Infantry Tactics: Training, Combat, and Small-Unit Effectiveness, by Earl J. Hess, reviewed by Barton A. Myers, 238-39

Corps Commanders in Blue: Union Major Generals in the Civil War, edited by Ethan S. Rafuse, reviewed by Kevin Adams, 240-41

Lincoln’s Trident: The West Gulf Blockading Squadron during the Civil War, by Robert M. Browning, Jr., reviewed by Edward T. Cotham, Jr., 241-42

Defining Duty in the Civil War: Personal Choice, Popular Culture, and the Union Home Front, by. J. Matthew Gallman, reviewed by Ginette Aley, 242-43

The First Battle for Petersburg: The Attack and Defense of the Cockade City, June 9, 1864, by William Glenn Robertson, reviewed by Nathan A. Marzoli, 244-45

Their Last Full Measure: The Final Days of the Civil War, by Joseph Wheelan, reviewed by Kyle S. Sinisi, 245-46

On a Great Battlefield: The Making, Management, and Memory of Gettysburg National Military Park, 1933-2013, by Jennifer M. Murray, reviewed by Timothy J. Orr, 246-48

An Army Doctor on the Western Frontier: Journals and Letters of John Vance Lauderdale, 1864-1890, edited by Robert M. Utley, reviewed by Sherry L. Smith, 248-29

Before Custer: Surviving the Yellowstone, 1872, edited by M. John Lubetkin, reviewed by Bruce L. Bigelow, 250-51

Friends and Enemies: The Natal Campaign in the South African War 1899-1902, by Hugh Rethman, reviewed by Jeffrey Lee Meriwether, 251-52

The Battle for Britain: Interservice Rivalry between the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy, 1909-40, by Anthony J. Cumming, reviewed by Tim Benbow, 252-53

British Infantry Commanders in the First World War, by Peter E. Hodgkinson, reviewed by Nikolas Gardner, 253-54

Commitment and Sacrifice: Personal Diaries from the Great War, by Marilyn Shevin-Coetzee and Frans Coetzee, reviewed by Lisa M. Budreau, 255-56

General Lesley J. McNair: Unsung Architect of the US Army, by Mark T. Calhoun, reviewed by Timothy K. Nenninger, 256-57

The Memoirs of Sir James Edmonds, edited by Ian Beckett, reviewed by D. L. LeMahieu, 257-59

Consequences of the Peace, The Versailles Settlement: Aftermath and Legacy 1919-2010, edited by Alan Sharp, reviewed by Priscilla Roberts, 259-60

Ready for Revolution: The CNT Defense Committees in Barcelona 1933-38, by Augustín Guillamón, reviewed by Wouter van Dijk, 261-62

Life and Death in Captivity: The Abuse of Prisoners during War, by Geoffrey R. Wallace, reviewed by Robert Doyle, 262-63

Before Auschwitz: Jewish Prisoners in the Prewar Concentration Camps, by Kim Wünschmann, reviewed by Eric Johnson, 263-65

The Cambridge History of the Second World War, Volume I: Fighting the War, edited by John Ferris and Evan Mawdsley, reviewed by Thomas W. Zeiler, 266-67

The Cambridge History of the Second World War. Vol. III: Total War: Economy, Society and Culture, edited by Michael Geyer and Adam Tooze, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 267-68

The British Expeditionary Force, 1939-40, by Edward Smalley, reviewed by Ian F. W. Beckett, 269-70

Hitler’s Warrior: The Life and Wars of SS Colonel Jochen Peiper, by Danny S. Parker, reviewed by Fred L. Borch III, 270-73

Nazi Secret Warfare in Occupied Persia (Iran): The Failure of the German Intelligence Services, 1939-1945, by Adrian O’Sullivan, reviewed by Katrin Paehler, 273-74

Order in Chaos: The Memoirs of General of Panzer Troops Hermann Balck, by Hermann Balck, edited and translated by David T. Zabecki and Dieter J. Biedekarken, reviewed by Henry G. Gole, 274-75

Browned Off and Bloody-Minded: The British Soldier Goes to War, 1939-1945, by Alan Allport, reviewed by S. P. MacKenzie, 276-77

Hirohito’s War: The Pacific War 1941-1945, by Francis Pike, reviewed by Edward Drea, 277-78

Execute against Japan: The U.S. Decision to Conduct Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, by Joel Ira Holwitt, reviewed by Nachman Ben-Yahuda, 278-79

The Search for the Japanese Fleet: USS Nautilus and the Battle of Midway, by David W. Jourdan, reviewed by Joel I. Holwitt, 279-80

Fu-go: The Curious History of Japan’s Balloon Bomb Attack on America, by Ross Coen, reviewed by Aaron Skabelun, 280-82

Generals of the Bulge: Leadership in the U.S. Army’s Greatest Battle, by Jerry Morelock, reviewed by Alexander G. Lovelace, 282-83

The Mediterranean Air War: Airpower and Allied Victory in World War II, by Robert Ehlers, reviewed by Kenneth P. Werrell, 283-85

How the War was Won: Air-Sea Power and Allied Victory in World War II, by Phillips Payson O’Brien, reviewed by Bradley Lynn Coleman, 285-86

Women and Men at War: A Gender Perspective on World War II and its Aftermath in Central and Eastern Europe, edited by Maren Röger and Ruth Leiserowitz, reviewed by Melanie Kirkland, 287-88

A Nazi Past: Recasting German Identity in Postwar Europe, edited by David A. Messenger and Katrin Paehler, reviewed by Jay Lockenour, 288-89

Great Powers, Small Wars: Asymmetric Conflict since 1945, by Larisa Deriglazova, reviewed by John S. Reed, 290-91

Post-war Japan as a Sea Power: Imperial Legacy, Wartime Experience, and the Making of a Navy, by Alessio Patalano, reviewed by Roger Dingman, 291-92

Social Unrest and American Military Bases in Turkey and Germany since 1945, by Amy Austin Holmes, reviewed by Clara Oberle, 293-94

Where Chiang Kai-shek Lost China: The Liao-Shen Campaign, by Harold M. Tanner, reviewed by Gary J. Bjorge, 295-96

Militärisch-Industrieller Komplex? Rüstung in Europa und Nordamerika nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, edited by Dieter H. Kollmer, reviewed by Ingo Trauschweizer, 296-98

Forging the Shield: The U.S. Army in Europe, 1951–1962, by Donald A. Carter, reviewed by William A. Taylor, 298-99

Muslim, Trader, Nomad, Spy: China’s Cold War and the People of the Tibetan Borderlands, by Sulmaan Wasif Khan, reviewed by June Teufel Dreyer, 299-301

US Army Psychiatry in the Vietnam War: New Challenges in Extended Counterinsurgency Warfare, by Norman Camp, reviewed by Michael Doidge, 301-2

Melvin Laird and the Foundation of the Post-Vietnam Military, 1969-1973, by Richard A. Hunt, reviewed by James Jay Carafano, 302-4

Richard Nixon and Europe: The Reshaping of the Postwar Atlantic World, by Luke A. Nestor, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 304-6

Deng Xiaoping’s Long War: The Military Conflict between China and Vietnam, 1979-1991, by Xiaoming Zhang, reviewed by Merle L. Pribbenow, 306-7

The Last Warrior: Andrew Marshall and the Shaping of Modern American Defense Strategy, by Andrew Krepinevich and Barry Watts, reviewed by David J. Snyder, 307-9

The Last Hot Battle of the Cold War: South Africa vs. Cuba in the Angolan Civil War, by Peter Polack, reviewed by Tim Stapleton, 309-11

Airpower Reborn: The Strategic Concepts of John Warden and John Boyd, edited by John Andreas Olsen, reviewed by Phillip S. Meilinger, 311-12

102 Days of War: How Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda & the Taliban Survived 2001, by Yaniv Barzilai, reviewed by Donald P. Wright, 313-14

From Deep State to the Islamic State: The Arab Counter-Revolution and its Jihadi Legacy, by Jean-Pierre Filiu, reviewed by David M. Witty, 315-16

Putin’s Wars: The Rise of Russia’s New Imperialism, by Marcel H. Van Herpen, reviewed by Alex Radsky, 316-17

BOOKS RECEIVED: 318-22
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 323-32
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 333