Journal of Military History
Vol. 77, No. 2
April 2013

Articles

Claire Robertson, “Racism, the Military, and Abolitionism in the Late Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Caribbean,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 433-461.
This article suggests that racism was a strategic military liability in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century wars between Britain and France in the Caribbean, wars which, ironically, coincided with the rise of abolitionism in both nations. The French Revolution, meanwhile, had provoked slave uprisings on many of the Caribbean islands. The article focuses on the actions of General Sir John Moore, Captain Thomas Southey, and Governor Victor Hugues, whose supposed abolitionism was contradicted by their belief that blacks could not govern themselves or be proper soldiers without white leadership. Their actions are contrasted with those of Sir John Jeremie, whose non-racist abolitionism cost him his career. Thus, both the British and French underestimated the black rebels’ capabilities and routinely executed black prisoners of war rather than ransoming or imprisoning them. These tendencies made Caribbean campaigns longer and bloodier than they might otherwise have been.
Chandar S. Sundaram, “‘Treated with Scant Attention’: The Imperial Cadet Corps, Indian Nobles, and Anglo-Indian Policy, 1897–1917,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 41-70.
The Imperial Cadet Corps (ICC), was founded in 1901 by the British Raj to give officer training to the princes and gentlemen of India. This article situates the ICC at the intersection of the history of war and society, and colonial Indian history, and contextualizes it within the debate on the Indianization of the Indian Army’s officer corps. Though the ICC failed, and closed in 1917, this article argues that it nevertheless established the precedent for the officer training of Indians in India, which reached full fruition when the Indian Military Academy opened in 1932.
David J. Fitzpatrick, “Emory Upton and the Army of a Democracy,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 463-490.
Historians have long contended that Emory Upton (1839–81) was a “militaristic zealot” whose anti-democratic ideas caused generations of U.S. Army officers to sink into “Uptonian pessimism,” a belief that democracies were unable to manifest a coherent military policy. This essay argues otherwise. First, it contends that Upton was not a militarist and that he intended his reforms to protect democracy, not undermine it. Second, it argues that the U.S. Army officer corps in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was not mired in pessimism, Uptonian or otherwise.
Katherine C. Epstein, “‘No One Can Afford To Say ‘Damn the Torpedoes’: Battle Tactics and U.S. Naval History before World War I,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 491-520.
Historians overwhelmingly agree that the U.S. Navy changed dramatically between the early 1880s and World War I, but few have asked how the “New Navy” of this era planned to fight its battles. This article seeks to recover its ideas about battle tactics, using torpedo development as a point of entry. Although officials thought seriously about torpedoes’ tactical implications, technological complexity and habits of institutional communication hindered the navy’s ability to agree on them, and important questions remained unresolved on the eve of World War I in 1914.
Tim Cook, “Grave Beliefs: Stories of the Supernatural and the Uncanny among Canada’s Great War Trench Soldiers,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 521-542.
The Great War’s No Man’s Land and the trenches that faced into it, with destructive weapons ruling the space, created a dislocated environment that spawned stories of death and haunting. The Canadian soldiers’ belief systems were robust and varied, but some men embraced the magical, uncanny, and supernatural to make meaning of their war experiences. An attempt to locate and situate these “grave beliefs” within soldiers’ narratives brings to light an understudied aspect of the cultural history of the war.
Alex Souchen, “The Culture of Morale: Battalion Newspapers in the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, June–August 1944,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 543-567.
This article explores the collective impact of information sharing, social interaction, and cultural expression on the morale of Canadian soldiers in the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division during the Battle of Normandy in France during World War II. It finds that battalion newspapers played an important role in supporting unit morale in three ways. First, they stimulated interest in unit traditions and folklore. Second, they defended unit morale against German psychological warfare tactics. Finally, they provided soldiers with a coping mechanism, as the songs, poetry, and humorous anecdotes helped them to express a cultural identity and construct meaning from the traumatic experience of war.
Ken Young, “Special Weapon, Special Relationship: The Atomic Bomb Comes to Britain,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 569-598.
Post-1945 U.S. war planning assumed that a strike on the Soviet Union would be prosecuted by B-29s flying the atomic bomb from forward bases in East Anglia, England, where in 1946 bomb preparation and loading facilities were established at disused airfields. In 1950, atomic-capable aircraft, complete with bomb components, were first deployed to England, amidst anxieties about sabotage and a pre-emptive Soviet air strike. This establishment of a U.S. atomic strike capability in England arose from an entirely informal arrangement based on mutual trust. That informality would soon engender concern in Britain as the lack of symmetry in Anglo-American atomic relations became more apparent.
Christopher Tuck, “‘Cut the bonds which bind our hands’: Deniable Operations during the Confrontation with Indonesia, 1963–1966,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 599-623.
In 1966, Britain triumphed in a little-known low-intensity war against Indonesia. Orthodox assessments of what was known as the “Confrontation” have lionised British achievements during the campaign, especially the role played by Operation Claret: a campaign of secret, deniable cross-border operations. This article argues that, in fact, British deniable operations were extremely problematic and, indeed, increasingly unpopular with senior military officers. The argument highlights, in particular, the re-occurrence of a perennial problem in the use of military force: the difficulty in measuring during campaigns the extent to which tactical- and operational-level military successes actually translate into strategic political success.
Steven A. Fino, “Breaking the Trance: The Perils of Technological Exuberance in the U.S. Air Force Entering Vietnam,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 625-655.
A survey of U.S. Air Force air-to-air armament from World War II through Vietnam’s Operation ROLLING THUNDER reveals the institution’s focus on developing advanced technologies and tactics designed to thwart hordes of Soviet bombers. Challenged by nimble MiGs over Vietnam, the service was reluctant to investigate “low-tech” armament solutions. When the value of a gun in air combat was finally acknowledged, the Air Force elected to field it as part of an integrated weapons system on the F-4E. In the interim, pilots at DaNang air base cobbled together an inelegant but effective air-to-air external gun system. The episode reveals the significant potential, and fragility, of unit-initiated tactical innovation and the peril that can arise when an organization’s technological exuberance obfuscates less technologically-appealing solutions.
Document of Note:

Earl J. Catagnus, Jr., “Infantry Field Manual 7-5 Organization and Tactics of Infantry: The Rifle Battalion (October 1940),” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 657-666.
FM 7-5 Organization and Tactics of Infantry: The Rifle Battalion, published in 1940, has yet to be used by historians of the interwar U.S. Army. Written under the supervision of its primary contributor, Major General George A. Lynch, the U.S. Army’s Chief of Infantry, this field manual prescribed tactics, techniques, and procedures similar to those of the vaunted German army. The excerpts were chosen as representative of the nature of the military intellectualism underpinning the document.
Review Essay:

Patrick J. Speelman, “The Logistics of British Naval Supremacy in the Age of Sail,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 667-670.
Review Essay:

Jasper M. Trautsch, “The Causes of the War of 1812: 200 Years of Debate,” The Journal of Military History 77 #1 (January 2013): 273-93.
Review Essay:

Fred L. Borch, “Lieber’s Code: A Landmark in the Law of War But Not Lincoln’s Code,” The Journal of Military History 77 #2 (April 2013): 671-674.

Reviews:
This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles 1485-1746, by Charles Carlton, reviewed by Guy Chet and by Scott E. Belliveau, 675-678

The Pharaoh: Life at Court and on Campaign, by Garry J. Shaw, reviewed by Antonio Santosuosso, 678-679

Lost World of the Golden King: In Search of Ancient Afghanistan, by Frank L. Holt, reviewed by Matthew A. Sears, 679-680

Ambush: Surprise Attack in Ancient Greek Warfare, by Rose Mary Sheldon, reviewed by Lee L. Brice, 680-681

A Companion to Women’s Military History, edited by Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining, reviewed by Kara Dixon Vuic, 682-683

Invisible Armies: An Epic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Times to the Present, by Max Boot, reviewed by Benjamin Beede, 683-684

The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons’ War, by Adrian Jobson, reviewed by David Stewart Bachrach, 685-686

Fatal Colours: Towton 1461 England’s Most Brutal Battle, by George Goodwin, reviewed by Michael Prestwich, 686-687

Marlborough: Soldier and Diplomat, edited by John B. Hattendorf, Augustus J. Veenendaal, Jr., and Rolof Van Hövell tot Westerflier, reviewed by Charles Carlton, 687-689

The Memoir of Lieutenant Dumont, 1715-1747. Jean-François-Benjamin Dumont de Montigny: A Sojourner in the French Atlantic, edited by Gordon M. Sayre and Carla Zecher, reviewed by Doina Pasca Harsanyi, 689-690

Commodore Abraham Whipple of the Continental Navy: Privateer, Patriot, Pioneer, by Sheldon S. Cohen, reviewed by Jennifer L. Speelman, 690-692

Amid a Warring World: American Foreign Relations, 1775-1815, by Robert W. Smith, reviewed by Frank W. Brecher, 692-693

George Rogers Clark: “I Glory in War”, by William R. Nester, reviewed by R. Douglas Hurt, 693-694

Napoleonic Wars. The Essential Bibliography Series, by Frederick C Schneid, reviewed by Mark Lawrence, 695-696

The American National State and the Early West, by William H. Bergmann, reviewed by Lawrence B. A. Hatter, 696-697

The Indianization of Lewis and Clark, by William R. Swagerty, reviewed by John P. Bowes, 697-699

What So Proudly We Hailed: Essays on the Contemporary Meaning of the War of 1812, edited by Pietro S. Nivola and Peter J. Kastor, reviewed by Jasper M. Trautsch, 699-701

Rising Up from Indian Country: The Battle of Fort Dearborn and the Birth of Chicago, by Ann Durkin Keating, reviewed by John W. Hall, 701-703

Mending Broken Soldiers: The Union and Confederate Programs to Supply Artificial Limbs, by Guy R. Hasegawa, reviewed by Bobby A. Wintermute, 703-704

Freedom by the Sword: The U.S. Colored Troops 1862-1867, by William A. Dobak, reviewed by Frank N. Schubert, 704-705

The Leadership of Ulysses S. Grant: A General Who Will Fight, by Harry S. Laver, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 706-707

Brothers to the Buffalo Soldiers: Perspectives on the African American Militia and Volunteers, 1865-1917, edited by Bruce A. Glasrud, reviewed by Paul Renard, 707-708

Tolstoy on War: Narrative Art and Historical Truth in “War and Peace,” edited by Rick McPeak and Donna Tussing Orwin, reviewed by Alexander Mikaberidze, 708-710

Geronimo, by Robert M. Utley, reviewed by Michael L. Tate, 711-712

The Army in the Pacific: A Century of Engagement, by James C. McNaughton, reviewed by Richard Meixsel, 712-713

Churchill and Sea Power, by Christopher M. Bell, reviewed by N.A.M. Rodger, 713-714

Warlords: Borden, Mackenzie King and Canada’s World Wars, by Tim Cook, reviewed by Graham Broad, 715-716

Military Adaptation in War: With Fear of Change, by Williamson Murray, reviewed by Ralph Hitchens, 716-718

Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, reviewed by Len Shurtleff, 718-719

The Military Papers of Lieutenant-General Frederick Stanley Maude, 1914‑1917, edited by Andrew Syk, reviewed by Ian M. Brown, 719-720

The Zimmermann Telegram: Intelligence, Diplomacy, and America’s Entry into World War I, by Thomas Boghardt, reviewed by Mark E. Grotelueschen, 720-721

World War I and the Origins of U.S. Military Intelligence, by James L. Gilbert, reviewed by David Kahn, 721-723

The United States in World War I: A Bibliographic Guide, by James T. Controvich, reviewed by Jennifer D. Keene, 723-724

Camp and Combat on the Sinai and Palestine Front: The Experience of the British Empire Soldier, 1916-1918, by Edward C. Woodfin, reviewed by Justin Fantauzzo, 724-726

Avoiding Armageddon: From the Great War to the Fall of France, 1918-40, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by Priscilla Roberts, 726-727

Veterans’ Policies, Veterans’ Politics: New Perspectives on Veterans in the Modern United States, edited by Stephen R. Ortiz, reviewed by Robert L. Goldich, 727-730

America’s Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919-1923, by Robert Shenk, reviewed by Christopher B. Havern, 730-731

Clash of Empires in South China: The Allied Nations’ Proxy War with Japan, 1935-1941, by Franco David Macri, reviewed by Roger B. Jeans, 731-733

Underdogs: The Making of the Modern Marine Corps, by Aaron O’Connell, reviewed by Colin M. Colbourn, 733-734

The Drive on Moscow 1941: Operation Taifun and Germany’s First Great Crisis in World War II, by Niklas Zetterling and Anders Frankson, reviewed by Roger R. Reese, 734-735

A Very British Experience: Coalition, Defence and Strategy in the Second World War, by Andrew Stewart, reviewed by Marcus Faulkner, 735-736

The Eagle Unbowed: Poland and the Poles in the Second World War, by Halik Kochanski, reviewed by Philip W. Blood, 736-738

Defeating Japan: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and Strategy in the Pacific War, 1943-1945, by Charles F. Brower, reviewed by Edward Drea, 738-739

Fighting Patton: George S. Patton, Jr. Through the Eyes of his Enemies, by Harry Yeide, reviewed by Robert M. Citino, 739-741

El Alamein: The Battle That Turned the Tide of the Second World War, by Bryn Hammond, reviewed by Niall Barr, 741-742

Hollywood’s South Seas and the Pacific War: Searching for Dorothy Lamour, by Sean Brawley and Chris Dixon, reviewed by Beth Bailey, 742-743

One World, Big Screen: Hollywood, the Allies and World War II, by M. Todd Bennett, reviewed by Nicholas J. Cull, 743-744

Defending Whose Country? Indigenous Soldiers in the Pacific War, by Noah Riseman, reviewed by John Connor, 745-746

Allied Master Strategists: The Combined Chiefs of Staff in World War II, by David Rigby, reviewed by Alex Danchev, 746-747

The Blood of Free Men: The Liberation of Paris, 1944, by Michael Neiberg, reviewed by Stephen A. Bourque, 747-749

The March East 1945: The Final Days of Oflag IX A/H and A/Z, by Peter Green, reviewed by Hal Elliott Wert, 749-750

Defeating Hitler :Whitehall’s Secret Report on Why Hitler Lost the War, by Paul Winter, reviewed by Gerhard L. Weinberg, 750-751

A Military History of the Cold War 1944-1962, by Jonathan M. House, reviewed by Andrej Gaspari, 752-753

State of War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1945-2011, by Paul A. C. Koistinen, reviewed by Jonathan M. House, 753-754

The Will to Win: American Military Advisors in Korea, 1946-1953, by Bryan R. Gibby, reviewed by William M. Donnelly, 754-755

Blueprints for Battle: Planning for War in Central Europe, 1948-1968, edited by Jan Hoffenaar and Dieter Krűger, reviewed by Robert S, Jordan, 756-757

The Kosova Liberation Army: Underground War to Balkan Insurgency, 1948-2001, by James Pettifer, reviewed by John Ashbrook, 758-759

The Rise of China vs. the Logic of Strategy, by Edward N. Luttwak, reviewed by June Teufel Dreyer, 759-760

Galula: The Life and Writings of the French Officer who Defined the Art of Counterinsurgency, by A. A. Cohen, reviewed by Douglas Porch, 761-762

Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America’s Vietnam, by Fredrik Logevall, reviewed by Brian P. Farrell, 762-764

Nasser’s Gamble: How Intervention in Yemen Caused the Six-Day War and the Decline of Egyptian Power, by Jesse Ferris, reviewed by David Witty, 764-765

War and Conflict in Africa, by Paul D. Williams, reviewed by Kieran Mitton, 765-767

Precision-Guided Munitions and Human Suffering in War, by James E. Hickey, reviewed by Mark J. Conversino, 767-768

War from the Ground Up: Twenty-First Century Combat as Politics, by Emile Simpson, reviewed by Lester W. Grau, 768-769


Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 770-774
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 775-783
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 784-796