Journal of Military History
Vol. 76, No. 1
January 2012

Articles

Zeynep Kocabıyıkoğlu Çeçen, “Two Different Views of Knighthood in the Early Fifteenth Century: Le Livre de Bouciquaut and the Works of Christine de Pizan,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 9-35.
The claim that the renowned writer on political and military affairs, Christine de Pizan (1363-1430), was the author of the biography of Jean le Meingre Bouciquaut (or Boucicaut), a famous marshal of France in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, has been debated by scholars for a long time. Although the current academic view tends towards rejecting Christine's authorship of the book, the arguments both for and against have not contained any discussion of the respective views of knighthood reflected in the biography and in Christine's works. In spite of scholars' recognition that there were different views of knighthood circulating among authors in this period, the assumption that Christine and the author of the biography shared similar views really has never been challenged. This article contends that the view of knighthood defended by the author of the biography was strikingly different in many ways from that held by Christine, a further reason for rejecting Christine as the biography's author. At the same time, the article also contributes to the discussion of those different views of knighthood during the period.
Huw J. Davies, “Diplomats as Spymasters: A Case Study of the Peninsular War, 1809–1813,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 37-68.
During the Peninsular War, General Lord Wellington orchestrated and utilised one of the most sophisticated intelligence collection apparatuses of the nineteenth century. Not only was the intelligence collected by his own personnel made available to him, but so too was that collected by a group of civilian agents recruited and controlled by the British diplomats in Portugal and Spain, Charles Stuart and Henry Wellesley. This article analyses the organisation and evolution of these intelligence networks during the critical years of the Peninsular War. It then explains the impact of this intelligence on Wellington’s military planning, specifically focusing on the opening campaigns of 1812. It then locates the historical importance of the intelligence networks developed in the Iberian Peninsula, by comparing them with later examples during the Crimean War (1853–56), and preceding the outbreak of the First World War (1914–18).
Candice Shy Hooper, “The War That Made Hollywood: How the Spanish-American War Saved the U.S. Film Industry,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 69-97.
Americans first saw motion pictures on a screen in 1896 but had begun to tire of cinema’s stale offerings by the end of 1897, and American filmmakers were considering abandoning the unprofitable medium. Then the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor (15 February 1898), and a small band of entrepreneurs rushed to capitalize on the disaster. Seizing upon the Spanish-American War’s inherent drama, they created films with narrative power, which brought audiences back to theaters and enabled the pioneers to survive the embryonic American film industry’s near financial collapse. They soon led the motion picture industry west and helped to make Hollywood the cinematic capital of the world.
Frank A. Anselmo, “The Battle for Hill K-9 and the Fall of Rome, 2 June 1944,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 99-126.
In the U.S. 179th Infantry Regiment’s official history, Warren P. Munsell, Jr., describes a major battle on 2 June 1944, when companies F and G of the second battalion captured and secured the heavily defended Hill K-9 south of Rome. However, on 9 June 1944, a second lieutenant in the first battalion’s B Company wrote that his company captured and secured Hill K-9. Using military records and eyewitness accounts, I attempt to determine which unit actually took, secured, and held Hill K-9—an essentially forgotten battle that nevertheless played a major role in Rome’s fall two days later.
Mark C. Jones, “Not Just Along for the Ride: The Role of Royal Navy Liaison Personnel in Multinational Naval Operations during World War II,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 127-158.
World War II was the testing ground for multinational naval operations, particularly the British Royal Navy’s association with the European navies-in-exile from Poland, Norway, the Netherlands, France, Yugoslavia, and Greece. In order for the Allied ships to operate alongside British vessels, it was necessary to place a liaison staff on each foreign ship. This article explains how the liaison system worked, describes what life was like for liaison personnel on a foreign ship, and evaluates the effectiveness of the liaison system. The article is based on documents from the British National Archives and first-person accounts.
Jay Lockenour, “Black and White Memories of War: Victimization and Violence in West German War Films of the 1950s,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 159-191.
Films, especially war films, played a key role in overcoming the extreme identity crisis that West German political culture suffered after 1945 due to defeat, division, and the moral consequences of National Socialism. Despite their often somber tone, war films provided a comfortable interpretation of the Second World War (1939–45), which cast Germans as helpless victims or heroic nonconformists rather than historical actors and compliant, or even eager, collaborators. War films helped to construct a specifically West German identity during the 1950s by creating the myths and memories so important to the legitimacy of the Federal Republic and the prosperity of that decade.
Review Essay:

Joel I. Holwitt, “Reappraising the Interwar U.S. Navy,” The Journal of Military History 76 #1 (January 2012): 193-210.
Despite a popular narrative that portrays the interwar U.S. Navy as a hidebound organization obsessed with a decisive battleship engagement, a number of scholarly works published in the last decade, following the lead of 1991’s War Plan Orange, have shown the opposite to be the case. These works by Craig Felker, Thomas and Trent Hone, John Kuehn, and Albert Nofi illustrate that the Navy was frequently led by innovative leaders, willing to experiment with new technologies and able to use fleet exercises and an internal review process to creatively, but realistically, generate a strategy that worked within the geographical and treaty constraints of an expected Pacific war.
Reviews:
The Changing Character of War, edited by Hew Strachan and Sibylle Scheipers, reviewed by Jeremy Black and by Daniel Moran, 211-213

The Vietnam War: An Assessment by South Vietnam’s Generals, edited by Lewis Sorley, reviewed by Mark Moyar and by John M. Carland, 213-216

The Evolution of Strategy: Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present, by Beatrice Heuser, reviewed by Andrew Lambert, 216-218

The Shaping of Grand Strategy: Policy, Diplomacy, and War, edited by Williamson Murray, Richard Hart Sinnreich, and James Lacey, reviewed by Ralph M. Hitchens, 218-220

The Battle of Marathon, by Peter Krentz, reviewed by Peter Hunt, 220-221

The Complete Roman Army, by Adrian Goldsworthy and Rome & the Sword: How Warriors and Weapons Shaped Roman History, by Simon James, reviewed by Rose Mary Sheldon, 221-223

Soldiering for God: Christianity and the Roman Army, by John F. Shean, reviewed by Hugh Elton, 224

Hannibal: The Military Biography of Rome’s Greatest Enemy, by Richard A. Gabriel, reviewed by Dexter Hoyos, 224-225

Warfare in Late Byzantium, 1204-1453, by Savvas Kyriakidis, reviewed by Warren Treadgold, 225-227

Edward III and the War at Sea: The English Navy, 1327-1377, by Graham Cushway, reviewed by John France, 227-228

Empires and Indigenes: Intercultural Alliance, Imperial Expansion, and Warfare in the Early Modern World, edited by Wayne E. Lee, reviewed by John Connor, 228-229

Beyond the Military Revolution: War in the Seventeenth Century World, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by David A. Graff, 229-231

Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery in North America, 1519-1871, by Jeremy Black, reviewed by John Grenier, 231-232

American Insurgents, American Patriots: The Revolution of the People, by T.H. Breen, reviewed by Mark Edward Lender, 233-234

“Cool Deliberate Courage”: John Eager Howard and the American Revolution, by Jim Piecuch and John H. Beakes, Jr., reviewed by Charles P. Neimeyer, 234-236

Field Artillery: Army Lineage Series. Parts 1 and 2, by Janice E. McKenney, reviewed by Boyd L. Dastrup, 236-237

U.S. Army Doctrine From the American Revolution to the War on Terror, by Walter E. Kretchik, reviewed by Richard Swain, 237-239

Outnumbered, Outgunned, Undeterred: Twenty Battles against the Odds, by Rob Johnson, reviewed by Frank Kalesnik, 239-240

The Czar’s General: The Memoirs of a Russian General in the Napoleonic Wars, Alexey Yermolov, edited and translated by Alexander Mikaberidze, reviewed by James R. Arnold, 240-241

A Matter of Honour: The Life, Campaigns and Generalship of Isaac Brock, by Jonathan Riley, reviewed by John R. Grodzinski, 241-242

Deterrence through Strength: British Naval Power and Foreign Policy under Pax Britannica, by Rebecca Berens Matzke, reviewed by James Levy, 243-244

The Pope's Soldiers: A Military History of the Modern Vatican, by David Alvarez, reviewed by Niccolò Capponi, 244-245

A Tale of Two Revolts: India’s Mutiny and the American Civil War, by Rajmohan Gandhi, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 245-247

A Civil War Gunboat in Pacific Waters: Life on Board the USS Saginaw, by Hans Konrad Van Tilburg, reviewed by Harold D. Langley, 247-248

George Crook: From the Redwoods to Appomattox, by Paul Magid, reviewed by Robert Wooster, 248-250

Chancellorsville and the Germans: Nativism, Ethnicity, and Civil War Memory, by Christian B. Keller, reviewed by D. Jonathan White, 250-251

Spain and the American Civil War, by Wayne H. Bowen, reviewed by José E. Alvarez, 251-252

American Civil War: The Essential Reference Guide, edited by James R. Arnold and Roberta Wiener, reviewed by Richard L. DiNardo, 253

Of Duty Well and Faithfully Done: A History of the Regular Army in the Civil War, by Clayton R. Newell and Charles R. Shrader, reviewed by Mark W. Johnson, 253-255

Soldiering in the Army of Northern Virginia: A Statistical Portrait of the Troops Who Served Under Robert E. Lee, by Joseph T. Glatthaar, reviewed by Jennifer M. Murray, 255-256

Citizen of Empire: Ethel Thomas Herold, an American in the Philippines, by Theresa Kaminski, reviewed by Mary Ann Heiss, 257-258

Tirpitz and the Imperial German Navy, by Patrick J. Kelly, reviewed by Terence Gottschall, 258-259

To End All Wars: A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion, 1914-1918, by Adam Hochschild, reviewed by Brock Millman, 259-261

Foch in Command: The Forging of a First World War General, by Elizabeth Greenhalgh, reviewed by Michael Neiberg, 261-262

Lloyd George at War 1916-1918, by George H. Cassar, reviewed by David R. Woodward, 263-264

With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918, by David Stevenson, reviewed by Peter Dennis, 264-265

George C. Marshall: Servant of the American Nation, edited by Charles F. Brower, reviewed by Daun van Ee, 266-267

War by Land, Sea, and Air: Dwight Eisenhower and the Concept of Unified Command, by David Jablonsky, reviewed by Wyndham Whynot, 267-268

Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-1943, by David J. Ulbrich, reviewed by Earl J. Catagnus, Jr., 269-270

Sailor Diplomat: Nomura Kichisaburō and the Japanese-American War, by Peter Mauch, reviewed by Roger Dingman, 270-271

Citizen Sailors: The Royal Navy in the Second World War, by Glyn Prysor, reviewed by Christopher McKee, 272-273

Guard Wars: The 28th Infantry Division in World War II, by Michael E. Weaver, reviewed by Barry M. Stentiford, 273-274

Corps Commanders: Five British and Canadian Generals at War, 1939-45, by Douglas E. Delaney, reviewed by John A. English, 274-276

A Bridge of Ships: Canadian Shipbuilding during the Second World War, by James Pritchard, reviewed by Chris Madsen, 276-277

Sarajevo, 1941-1945: Muslims, Christians and Jews in Hitler’s Europe, by Emily Greble, reviewed by Marko Attila Hoare, 278-279

War, Conflict and Security in Japan and Asia-Pacific 1941-52: The Writings of Louis Allen, edited by Ian Nish and Mark Allen, reviewed by Raymond Callahan, 279-280

Keep from All Thoughtful Men: How U.S. Economists Won World War II, by Jim Lacey, reviewed by Terrence J. Gough, 281-282

Mission Accomplished: SOE and Italy 1943-1945, by David Stafford, reviewed by D.W. Ellwood, 282-284

The Allied Air War and Urban Memory: The Legacy of Strategic Bombing in Germany, by Jörg Arnold, reviewed by Tami Davis Biddle, 284-285

Soviet Women in Combat: A History of Violence on the Eastern Front, by Anna Krylova, reviewed by Reina Pennington, 286-287

The Sword of St. Michael: The 82nd Airborne in World War II, by Guy LoFaro, reviewed by John C. McManus, 288-290

Omar Bradley: General at War, by Jim DeFelice, reviewed by Joseph R. Fischer, 290-292

Grunts: Inside the American Infantry Combat Experience, World War II through Iraq, by John C. McManus, reviewed by Peter S. Kindsvatter, 292-293

State vs. Defense: The Battle to Define America's Empire, by Stephen Glain, reviewed by Andrej Gaspari, 293-295

Rearming Germany, edited by James Corum, reviewed by Donald Abenheim, 295-296

After Leaning to One Side: China and its Allies in the Cold War, by Zhihua Shen and Danhui Li, reviewed by June Teufel Dreyer, 296-298

Leaders at War: How Presidents Shape Military Intervention, by Elizabeth N. Saunders, Catherine Shea Sanger, 298-299

Psychology of Space Exploration: Contemporary Research in Historical Perspective, edited by Douglas A. Vakoch, reviewed by James R. Hansen, 299-302

Engineers at War, by Adrian G. Traas, reviewed by Anneliese M. Steele, 302-303

Kontum: The Battle to Save South Vietnam, by Thomas P. McKenna, reviewed by Lewis Sorley, 303-305

Soldiering on in a Dying War: The True Story of Firebase Pace and the Vietnam Drawdown, by William J. Shkurti, reviewed by Thomas D. Morgan, 305-306


Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 307-312
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 314-316
LETTER TO THE EDITOR: 317