Journal of Military History
Vol. 75, No. 4
October 2011

Articles

David W. Hogan, Jr., “Head and Heart: The Dilemmas of American Attitudes Toward War,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1021-1054.
In recent years, Afghanistan and Iraq have drawn new attention to an old subject: American attitudes toward warfare. This essay surveys the existing literature to approach this problem through the interlocking factors of reason and feeling. At first, Americans reconciled these factors, and justified their wars, because republicanism, romantic nationalism, and Victorian culture created the comforting sense of a chosen nation in an orderly, moral cosmos. When two world wars and the Great Depression produced modernist doubt, Americans used nationalism, pragmatism, and faith in technology to guide and sustain them. By the late twentieth century, however, modernist challenges to old universals in a larger and more pluralistic society became harder to reconcile as debates over wars polarized along emotional extremes, while reason's proponents clung to a precarious middle ground. Currently, the prospect of a revived consensus appears remote.
Karen Hagemann, “Mobilizing Women for War: The History, Historiography, and Memory of German Women’s War Service in the Two World Wars,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1055-1093.
During World Wars I and II German women’s service became increasingly important for the functioning of the home front as well as the battle front. In 1944-45 more than 500,000 women were auxiliaries in the German armed forces (Wehrmacht), the same number served in civil aerial defense, 400,000 volunteered as nurses, and many more replaced drafted men in the wartime economy. This article takes a closer look at German women’s wartime service in the age of the two world wars in history, historiography, and memory, and tries to explain the paradox that while women’s wartime service was needed, it has long been overlooked in post-war memory and mainstream historiography. The essay draws upon recent scholarship, earlier publications, and primary sources to provide a comprehensive English-language overview.
Andrew Orr, “‘We call you to holy war’: Mustafa Kemal, Communism, and Germany in French Intelligence Nightmares, 1919-1923,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1095-1123.
In the immediate aftermath of the First World War, Mustafa Kemal and his Turkish National Movement fought to create a Turkish nation-state in the face of Allied attempts to partition the Turkish regions of the former Ottoman Empire. The struggle over the future of Turkey overlapped with the civil war which came on the heels of the Bolshevik Revolution in neighboring Russia and the assumption of control over nearby parts of the Middle East by Britain and France. Believing that events in Turkey were bound to have an impact on its attempt to consolidate control over its new imperial holdings in the Near East, the French government made a concerted effort to come to grips with the nature of the Kemalist movement. In the process, however, France’s military intelligence analysts, instead of seeing Kemalism as the nationalist and secular, westernizing movement it was, chose to identify Kemal as the central figure in a communist-inspired, German-controlled anti-colonial enterprise closely allied to Islamist political movements. The French military’s misunderstanding of Kemal’s goals and ideology reflected intelligence officers’ belief that Middle Eastern developments were essentially derivative of European politics.
Néstor Cerdá, “Political Ascent and Military Commander: General Franco in the Early Months of the Spanish Civil War, July–October 1936,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1125-1157.
On 17 July 1936 a military coup against the leftist Popular Front government in Spain began with a military uprising in Spanish Morocco, marking the start of the lethal three-year Spanish Civil War. Unforeseen setbacks to the military leaders’ plans in July and August 1936 radically altered the strategic situation, and gave Major General Francisco Franco a unique opportunity. This essay seeks to understand how he used that opportunity, rising from being merely another general supporting the uprising in July to the position of commander-in-chief of the Nationalist army and head of government less than three months later.
William P. McEvoy, “‘Experiences at Sea’: A Navy Doctor at War,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1159-1182.
This article identifies a significant hole in the literature of World War II. Few works discuss the everyday life of medical personnel and fewer still detail the lives of naval medical providers; those that do tend to focus on the exciting and bloody aspects of a medico at war. Filling this gap, this article argues that the most accurate picture of life at war should include life’s routine features and then describes the everyday experiences of a U.S. Navy doctor in the Pacific from September 1944 to December 1945, whose daily existence was far different from and more typical than the one most often portrayed.
William M. Donnelly, “Bilko’s Army: A Crisis in Command?” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1183-1215.
A major criticism of the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War is that it suffered from a crisis in command, especially among officers above the company grade level. Most writing on this topic has centered on structural issues, such as post–World War II personnel policies. This article will examine this phenomenon between the Korean and Vietnam wars by comparing contemporary publications and retrospective critiques by veterans with internal Army sources, particularly service schools, the headquarters of the Continental Army Command, and Headquarters, Department of the Army. If a crisis in command existed between 1953 and 1965, did these organizations’ leaders recognize it and address it?
Feature:

Frank N. Schubert, “The 25th Infantry at Brownsville, Texas: Buffalo Soldiers, the ‘Brownsville Six’, and the Medal of Honor,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1217-1224.
This article traces the emergence and content of a buffalo-soldier mythology and within the context of this myth examines the spread of a baseless claim that there were six holders of the Medal of Honor among the black soldiers dismissed after the August 1906 shooting affray in Brownsville, Texas. Despite the ease with which the story could be disproved, historians accepted it as credible, and it has migrated from the historical literature into the popular culture.
Review Essay:
Brian J. Hale, “Recent Literature on the Crusades,” The Journal of Military History 75 #4 (October 2011): 1225-1282.

Reviews:
Song of Wrath: The Peloponnesian War Begins, by J. E. Lendon, reviewed by Stewart Flory, 1273-74

Master Sun’s Art of War, translated, with an introduction by Philip J. Ivanhoe, reviewed by Yuet Keung Lo, 1275-76

The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, by Joseph O’Callaghan, reviewed by Ruth MacKay, 1276-77
In the Footsteps of the Black Prince: The Road to Poitiers, 1355-1356, by Peter Hoskins, reviewed by Daniel P. Franke, 1278-79

Barbarians & Brothers: Anglo-American Warfare, 1500-1865, by Wayne E. Lee, reviewed by Armstrong Starkey, 1280-81

Portuguese Sea Battles, Volume II: Christianity, Commerce and Corso, 1522-1538, by Armando da Silva Saturnino Monteiro, reviewed by John F. Guilmartin, Jr., 1281-82

The War for Mexico's West: Indians and Spaniards in New Galicia, 1524-1550, by Ida Altman, reviewed by Patricia Seed, 1283-84

Unto the Breach: Martial Formations, Historical Trauma, and the Early Modern Stage, by Patricia A. Cahill, reviewed by Adam N. McKeown, 1284-85

Warrior Pursuits: Noble Culture and Civil Conflict in Early Modern France, by Brian Sandberg, reviewed by Frederic J. Baumgartner, 1286-87

A Bard of Wolfe’s Army: James Thompson, Gentleman Volunteer, 1733-1830, edited by Earl John Chapman and Ian Macpherson McCulloch, reviewed by Patrick Speelman, 1287-88

The Emergence of Britain’s Global Naval Supremacy: The War of 1739-1748, by Richard Harding, reviewed by John B. Hattendorf, 1288-90

Enduring Battle: American Soldiers in Three Wars, 1776-1945, Christopher H. Hamner, reviewed by Harold R. Winton, 1290-91

Going to War: British Debates from Wilberforce to Blair, by Philip Towle, reviewed by Stephen M. Miller, 1291-92

Conscription in the Napoleonic Era: A Revolution in Military Affairs? Edited by Donald Stoker, Frederick C. Schneid, and Harold D. Blanton, reviewed by Ian Germani, 1292-94

The Evolution of Operational Art From Napoleon to the Present, edited by John Andreas Olsen and Martin van Creveld, reviewed by Michael R. Matheny, 1294-95

The Making of the Modern Admiralty:British Naval Policy-Making 1805-1927, by C. I. Hamilton, reviewed by Howard J. Fuller, 1296-97

Trailing Clouds of Glory: Zachary Taylor’s Mexican Campaign and His Emerging Civil War Leaders, by Felice Flanery Lewis, reviewed by Irving Levinson, 1297-98

Letters from the Crimea: Writing Home, a Dundee Doctor, edited by Douglas Hill, reviewed by Harold E. Raugh, Jr., 1298-1300

Visiting Modern War in Risorgimento Italy, by Jonathan Marwil, reviewed by Frederick C. Schneid, 1300-1

The Dogs of War: 1861, by Emory M. Thomas, reviewed by Harry S. Laver, 1301-3

Law in War, War as Law: Brigadier General Joseph Holt and the Judge Advocate General’s Department in the Civil War and Early Reconstruction, 1861-1865, by Joshua E. Kastenberg, reviewed by Burrus Carnahan, 1303-4

From Conciliation to Conquest: The Sack of Athens and the Court-Martial of Colonel John B. Turchin, by George C. Bradley and Richard L. Dahlen, reviewed by D. Jonathan White, 1304-6

Mississippi in the Civil War: The Home Front, by Timothy B. Smith, reviewed by Alfred Wallace, 1306-7

Decisions at Gettysburg: The Nineteen Critical Decisions That Defined the Campaign, by Matt Spruill, reviewed by Kavin Coughenour, 1308-9

Defeating Lee: A History of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, by Lawrence A. Kreiser, reviewed by Timothy J. Orr, 1309-11

The Union War, by Gary W. Gallagher, reviewed by Joseph C. Fitzharris, 1311-12

Union Combined Operations in the Civil War, edited by Craig L. Symonds, reviewed by James R. Arnold, 1312-13

Anglo-Zulu War: A Selected Bibliography, by Harold E. Raugh, Jr., reviewed by James O. Gump, 1313-14

The Margins of Empire, Kurdish Militias in the Ottoman Tribal Zone, by Janet Klein, reviewed by Edward J. Erickson, 1314-16

Command Culture: Officer Education in the U.S. Army and the German Armed Forces, 1901-1940, and the Consequences for World War II, by Jörg Muth, reviewed by Ingo Trauschweizer, 1316-17

The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902-1913, by James R. Arnold, reviewed by Candice Shy Hooper, 1317-19

Defeating the U-boat: Inventing Antisubmarine Warfare, by Jan S. Breemer, reviewed by Christopher Martin, 1319-20

World War One: The Global Revolution, by Lawrence Sondhaus, reviewed by Holger H. Herwig, 1320-21

Civilians in a World at War, 1914-1918, by Tammy M. Proctor, reviewed by Alan Kramer, 1322-23

Liddell Hart’s Western Front, edited by Brian Bond, reviewed by Ian F. W. Beckett, 1323-25

Artillery in the Great War, by Paul Strong and Sanders Marble, reviewed by Andrew Breer, 1325-26

Nothing Less Than War: A New History of America’s Entry into World War I, by Justus D. Doenecke, reviewed by Kendrick A. Clements, 1326-27

The Way of Duty, Honor, Country: The Memoir of General Charles Pelot Summerall, edited by Timothy K. Nenninger, reviewed by Douglas V. Johnson II, 1327-29

Fire for Effect: Field Artillery and Close Air Support in the U.S. Army, by John J. McGrath, reviewed by David T. Zabecki, 1329-30

One Hundred Years of U.S. Navy Air Power, edited by Douglas V. Smith, reviewed by William F. Trimble, 1330-32

Beneficial Bombing: The Progressive Foundations of American Air Power, 1917-1945, by Mark Clodfelter, reviewed by Richard R. Muller, 1332-33

Caissons Go Rolling Along: A Memoir of America in Post-World War I Germany, by Maj. Gen. Johnson Hagood, edited by Larry A. Grant, reviewed by Erika Kuhlmann, 1333-34

The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945, edited by Mark Peattie, Edward J. Drea, and Hans van de Ven, reviewed by Peter Worthing, 1335-36

A War It Was Always Going to Lose: Why Japan Attacked America in 1941, by Jeffrey Record, reviewed by Michael A. Barnhart, 1336-37

Turning the Tide: How a Small Band of Allied Sailors Defeated the U-Boats and Won the Battle of the Atlantic, by Ed Offley, reviewed by John D. Alden, 1337-38

Montgomery: Lessons in Leadership from the Soldier’s General, by Trevor Royle, reviewed by Charles Carlton, 1339-40

Gli Alleati e la Resistenza italiana, by Tommaso Piffer, reviewed by Raimondo Luraghi, 1340-41

Why Stalin’s Soldiers Fought: The Red Army’s Military Effectiveness in World War II, by Roger R. Reese, reviewed by Jonathan M. House, 1342-43

The United States and the Second World War: New Perspectives on Diplomacy, War, and the Home Front, edited by G. Kurt Piehler and Sidney Pash, reviewed by Thomas Bruscino, 1343-44

Books as Weapons: Propaganda, Publishing, and the Battle for Global Markets in the Era of World War II, by John Hench, reviewed by Catherine Turner, 1345-46

Fighting Spirit: The Memoirs of Major Yoshitaka Horie and the Battle of Iwo Jima, edited and annotated by Robert D. Eldridge and Charles W. Tatum, reviewed by Edward Drea, 1346-47

A Nation Forged in War: How World War II Taught Americans to Get Along, by Thomas Bruscino, reviewed by Robert F. Jefferson, 1347-49

His Majesty’s Opponent: Subhas Chandra Bose and India’s Struggle Against Empire, by Sugata Bose, reviewed by Chandar S. Sundaram, 1349-51

The “Good War” in American Memory, by John Bodnar, reviewed by Bradley L. Carter, 1351-52

Marching in Step: Masculinity, Citizenship, and the Citadel in Post-World War II America, by Alexander Macaulay, reviewed by Laura Brodie, 1353-54

Master of the Air: William Tunner and the Success of Military Airlift, by Robert A. Slayton, reviewed by Martin Agüera, 1354-55

The Columbia History of the Vietnam War, edited by David L. Anderson, reviewed by Peter Brush, 1355-57

The Rucksack War: U.S. Army Operational Logistics in Grenada, 1983, by Edgar F. Raines, Jr., reviewed by Stephen A. Bourque, 1357-58

The Insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus: From Gazavat to Jihad, by Robert W. Schaefer, reviewed by Lester W. Grau, 1358-59

Victory for Hire: Private Security Companies’ Impact on Military Effectiveness, by Molly Dunnigan, reviewed by Christopher Kinsey, 1360-61

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 984-990
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 991-993
DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS IN MILITARY HISTORY: 994-1002
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 1003-1004
SMH 2011 PRIZES AND AWARDS: 1012