Journal of Military History
Vol. 75, No. 1
January 2011

Articles

Ilya Berkovich, “The Battle of Forbie and the Second Frankish Kingdom of Jerusalem,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 9-44.
The disastrous defeat of the Franks and their Syrian allies at the battle of Forbie in 1244 marked a turning point in the fortunes of the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem. Forbie spelled the end of the Frankish capacity to launch a full-scale campaign with their own forces, leaving their kingdom’s survival dependent on the support of its Western allies and the power politics of its Muslim neighbours. This paper examines the battle and the armies of the Franko-Syrian coalition. The campaign’s events and the size of the Christian contingent demonstrate the prominent political and military role played by the Second Kingdom in Near Eastern politics up to 1244.
Stephanie Cronin, “Building and Rebuilding Afghanistan’s Army: An Historical Perspective,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 45-91
This article discusses the serial efforts made by Afghan rulers and governments, between the early nineteenth century and the present, to build modern regular armies and analyzes the reasons for the repeated failure of these efforts. Its context is the urgency of the current army reform programme being undertaken by the United States and its North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies in Afghanistan, which constitutes a key exit strategy for Western forces. The article situates the historical failure of military reform within the framework of a broader failure of state-building, and locates a central difficulty in successive Afghan governments’ strategies towards tribal power.
David G. Smith, “‘Clear the Valley’: The Shenandoah Valley and the Genesis of the Gettysburg Campaign,” The Journal of Military History 74 #4 (October 2010): 1069-1096.
Countless writers have speculated on Robert E. Lee’s motivations for the Gettysburg campaign during the American Civil War. One significant factor has received less attention than others: the need to clear the Shenandoah Valley of occupying Union forces. This essay argues that the situation in the Shenandoah Valley was a key part of Lee’s conceptualization of the campaign and his analysis of its results. This perspective illuminates the issues of logistics and home front discontent that confronted Lee and made him begin planning his operation well before April 1863. It supports and broadens recent work highlighting the importance of logistics in the campaign.
Matthew Hughes, “War Without Mercy? American Armed Forces and the Deaths of Civilians during the Battle for Saipan, 1944,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 93-123
This essay explores the U.S. military forces’ treatment of civilians in 1944 during the battle for Saipan, the first central Pacific island on which American forces encountered large numbers of civilians. Thousands of civilians, including Japanese and Korean migrants and “native” islander Chamorro and Carolinian peoples, died during the battle. The Pacific war literature overlooks the impact of the war on noncombatant island populations, preferring to focus on the actual fighting. This article extends the boundaries of the Pacific campaign’s military history to include the experience of civilians, contextualizing the debate within what John Dower has described as “war without mercy.”
Martin Thomas. “Colonial Violence in Algeria and the Distorted Logic of State Retribution: The Sétif Uprising of 1945,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 125-157
This article addresses the reasons behind the rapid escalation of French security force and vigilante violence employed to suppress the Sétif uprising that broke out in colonial Algeria on VE-Day, 8 May 1945. Recourse to overwhelming military force to put down the uprising illustrated French capacity to terrorize Algerian civilians, but it should not conceal the structural weakness of the colonial state. Political initiative passed inexorably to France’s anticolonial opponents, precisely the outcome that state coercion was intended to avoid. Algeria’s nationalists may have lost the battle in May 1945, but, thanks to colonial authorities’ failings, they were already winning the war.
Eric H. Cline and Anthony Sutter, “Battlefield Archaeology at Armageddon: Cartridge Cases and the 1948 Battle for Megiddo, Israel,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 159-190
During 2008 and 2010 at Megiddo (biblical Armageddon) in Israel, archaeologists excavating a stratigraphical layer that should have been filled solely with artifacts almost 3,000 years old unexpectedly recovered more than 213 spent cartridge cases, most likely dating from the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. Finding themselves unintentionally involved in the relatively new field of “battlefield archaeology” more usually conducted in the United States and Europe, the archaeologists analyzed the cartridge cases, attempted to reconstruct what had happened, and contributed additional information to historical accounts of the modern battle and of the Czechoslovakian arms deals with the Israelis in early 1948.
Everett L. Wheeler, “Rome’s Dacian Wars: Domitian, Trajan, and Strategy on the Danube, Part II,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 191-219
The Dacian wars of Domitian (84–89) and Trajan (101–102, 105–106) are here set within the strategic context of Roman involvement with the Lower Danubian region. A survey of developments from the late first century B.C. through the reign of Hadrian (117–138 A.D.) identifies this area as a real frontier problem that required (and received) planning, contrary to the views of deniers of Roman strategy. Roman failures on occasion are not a basis for denial of strategy. Roman geographical ignorance, a favorite tenet of the “no strategy” school, is shown for this frontier to be a false argument.
Historiographical Essay:
Samuel Watson. “Continuity in Civil-Military Relations and Expertise: The U.S. Army during the Decade before the Civil War,” The Journal of Military History 75 #1 (January 2011): 221-250

Reviews:
The War for Korea, 1950-1951: They Came from the North, by Allan R. Millett, reviewed by Conrad C. Crane and by Charles K. Armstrong, 251-254

A New History of the Peloponnesian War, by Lawrence A. Tritle, reviewed by J. E. Lendon, 254-255

China’s Cosmopolitan Empire: The Tang Dynasty, by Mark Edward Lewis, reviewed by Peter Lorge, 256-257

Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th-13th Centuries, translated by Malcolm Barber and Keith Bate, reviewed by Conor Kostick, 258-259

A History of the Late Medieval Siege, 1200-1500, by Peter Purton, reviewed by David Stewart Bachrach, 259-260

The Royal American Regiment: An Atlantic Microcosm, 1755-1772, by Alexander V. Campbell, reviewed by Ira D. Gruber, 261-262

Books and the British Army in the Age of the American Revolution, by Ira D. Gruber, reviewed by Armstrong Starkey, 262-263

Intrepid Women: Cantinières and Vivandières of the French Army, by Thomas Cardoza, reviewed by Dale Lothrop Clifford, 263-265

Histoire militaire des Guerres de Vendée, edited by Hervé Coutau-Bégarie and Charles Doré Fraslin, reviewd by Howard G. Brown, 265-266

Napoleon’s Other War: Bandits, Rebels and Their Pursuers in the Age of Revolutions, by Michael Broers, reviewed by D.M.G. Sutherland, 267-268

An Atlas of the Peninsular War, by Ian Robertson, cartography by Martin Brown, reviewed by Edward J. Coss, 268-269

1809 Thunder on the Danube: Napoleon’s Defeat of the Habsburgs. Volume III Wagram and Znaim, by John H. Gill, reviewed by Frank J. Garosi, 270-271

Napoleon Against Great Odds: The Emperor and the Defenders of France, 1814, by Ralph Ashby, reviewed by Llewellyn D. Cook, 271-272

The Long Road to Annapolis: The Founding of the Naval Academy and the Emerging American Republic, by William P. Leeman, reviewed by Donald Chisholm, 273-274

A Society of Gentlemen: Midshipmen at the U. S. Naval Academy, 1845-1861, by Mark C. Hunter, reviewed by H. Michael Gelfand, 274-276

Notes of the Mexican War, 1846-1848, by J. Jacob Oswandel, edited by Timothy D. Johnson and Nathaniel Cheairs Hughes, Jr., reviewed by Tyler V. Johnson, 276-277

Raise, Train and Sustain: Delivering Land Combat Power, edited by Peter Dennis and Jeffrey Grey, reviewed by Roger Cirillo, 277-278

The Grand Design: Strategy and the U.S. Civil War, by Donald Stoker, reviewed by Wayne Wei-siang Hsieh, 278-280

Blue and Gray Diplomacy: A History of Union and Confederate Foreign Relations, by Howard Jones, reviewed by Howard J. Fuller, 280-281

Sister States, Enemy States: The Civil War in Kentucky and Tennessee, edited by Kent T. Dollar, reviewed by Steven E. Sodergren, 281-282

Men of Color to Arms! Black Soldiers, Indian Wars, and the Quest for Equality, by Elizabeth D. Leonard, reviewed by Bruce A. Glasrud, 283-284

Organizing for War: France, 1870-1914, by Rachel Chrastil, reviewed by Thomas Cardoza, 284-285

Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896-1921, by James Wood, reviewed by Desmond Morton, 285-287

Why America Fights: Patriotism and War Propaganda from the Philippines to Iraq, by Susan A. Brewer, reviewed by Allison B. Gilmore, 287-288

War Crimes, Genocide, and the Law, by Arnold Krammer, reviewed by Gary D. Solis, 289-290

The Berlin-Baghdad Express: The Ottoman Empire and Germany’s Bid for World Power, by Sean McMeekin, reviewed by Edward J. Erickson, 290-291

The Origins of the First World War, by William Mulligan, reviewed by Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., 292-293

Churchill’s Dilemma: The Real Story behind the Origins of the 1915 Dardanelles Campaign, by Graham T. Clews, reviewed by Nicholas A. Lambert, 293-295

Gallipoli: The Ottoman Campaign, by Edward J. Erickson, reviewed by Mustafa Aksakal, 295-296

Balkan Breakthrough: The Battle of Dobro Pole 1918, by Richard C. Hall; Blood on the Snow: The Carpathian Winter War of 1915, by Graydon A. Tunstall; Breakthrough: The Gorlice-Tarnow Campaign, 1915, by Richard L. DiNardo, reviewed by Timothy C. Dowling, 296-298

Spies in Arabia: The Great Cultural War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain’s Covert Empire in the Middle East, by Priya Satia, reviewed by Frederick Anscombe, 298-300

Airborne Espionage, International Special Duties Operations in the World Wars, by David Oliver, reviewed by Murdock Moore, 300-301

The Army Medical Department 1917-1941, by Mary C. Gillett, reviewed by Bobby A. Wintermute, 301-303

To Fight or Not to Fight?: Organizational and Doctrinal Trends in Mounted Maneuver Reconnaissance from the Interwar Years to Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, by Robert S. Cameron, reviewed by George F. Hofmann, 303-304

Mountbatten: Apprentice War Lord, by Adrian Smith, reviewed by Raymond Callahan, 304-306

To Train the Fleet for War: The U.S. Navy Fleet Problems, 1923-1940, by Albert A. Nofi, reviewed by John T. Kuehn, 306-307

For Military Merit: Recipients of the Purple Heart, by Fred L. Borch, reviewed by David T. Zabecki, 307-309

The Oakland Army Base: An Oral History, edited by Martin Meeker, reviewed by Kathleen Broome Williams, 309-310

Every Day a Nightmare: American Pursuit Pilots in the Defense of Java, 1941-1942, by William H. Bartsch, reviewed by Ronald H. Spector, 310-312

Fighting Back: British Jewry’s Military Contribution in the Second World War, by Martin Sugarman, reviewed by Harold Shukman, 312-313

African American World War II Casualties and Decorations in the Navy, Coast Guard and Merchant Marine: A Comprehensive Record, by Glenn A. Knoblock, reviewed by Fred L. Borch, 314-316

Bloody Pacific: American Soldiers at War with Japan, by Peter Schrijvers, reviewed by Harold J. Goldberg, 316-317

The MacArthur Highway and Other Relics of American Empire in the Philippines, by Joseph P. McCallus, reviewed by Richard Meixsel, 318-319

Tokyo Rose/An American Patriot: A Dual Biography, by Frederick P. Close, reviewed by Roger B. Jeans, 319-320

Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin, by Timothy Snyder, reviewed by David Stahel, 320-322

Screening Enlightenment: Hollywood and the Cultural Reconstruction of Defeated Japan, by Hiroshi Kitamura, reviewed by Mark Caprio, 322-323

Selling Air Power: Military Aviation and American Popular Culture after World War II, by Steve Call, reviewed by Kenneth P. Werrell, 323-325

Lifting the Fog of Peace: How Americans Learned to Fight Modern War, by Janine Davidson, reviewed by Henry G. Gole, 325-326

Combat Ready? The Eighth U.S. Army on the Eve of the Korean War, by Thomas E. Hanson, reviewed by Donald W. Boose, Jr., 326-327

The Korean War: A History, by Bruce Cumings, reviewed by Spencer C. Tucker, 327-329

Forgotten Warriors: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, the Corps Ethos, and the Korean War, by T. X. Hammes, reviewed by Jon Hoffman, 329-331

Latin America’s Cold War, by Hal Brands, reviewed by Halbert Jones, 331-332

Afghanistan: Graveyard of Empires. A New History of the Borderland, by David Isby, reviewed by Jason H. Campbell, 332-334

New Zealand’s Vietnam War: A History of Combat, Commitment and Controversy, by Ian McGibbon, reviewed by Glyn Harper, 334-336

Superpower Illusions: How Myths and False Ideologies Led America Astray – And How to Return to Reality, by Jack F. Matlock, Jr., reviewed by Carl Cavanagh Hodge, 336-337

Justifying Ballistic Missile Defence: Technology, Security and Culture, by Columba Peoples, reviewed by Donald R. Baucom, 337-339

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 340-346
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 347-349
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 350-351