Journal of Military History
Vol. 73, No. 4
October 2009

Articles

Carl Meredith Bradley, “The British War Chariot: A Case for Indirect Warfare,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1073-1089
In 55 B.C. Julius Caesar crossed into Britain and was immediately engaged in a unique style of warfare. The Iron Age Britons used sturdy and fast two-horse chariots to respond to Roman invasion. This article looks at the tactics of and analyzes aspects of the battle chariot. It assesses the capabilities of the people who fielded the chariot and the means used to sustain their resources and gauge their capabilities. Drawing on both classical and archaeological sources, this article presents a fuller account of Caesar’s two trips to Britain in 55–54 B.C. and the British warfare he encountered.
John R. Maass, “‘Too Grievous for a People to Bear’: Impressment and Conscription
in Revolutionary North Carolina,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1091-1115
Waging the War of American Independence (1775–83) required massive numbers of troops, weapons, and supplies in quantities most states could not readily provide. Meeting these needs were persistent challenges for the nascent state governments, all of which lacked a financial foundation, manufacturing base, and logistical network to sustain a concerted war effort. North Carolina was particularly beset by these challenges, which led state officials to adopt two of the most burdensome intrusions into the wartime routines of Carolinians: impressment and conscription. Both of these expedients produced antipathy and resistance to Patriot authorities, undermined support for the new state, and added to the disorders within the state during most of the war years.
Brian Neumann, “‘A Question of Authority’: Reassessing the March–Pershing ‘Feud’
in the First World War,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1117-1142
Current scholarship on the feud between American generals John J. Pershing and Peyton C. March during the First World War has generally argued that the dispute was overly exaggerated by contemporaries, with most of the conflict developing in the postwar era. The present study challenges this interpretation, arguing that the wartime conflict between March and Pershing was more severe than previously thought, and was founded upon the lack of a clearly defined command structure within the American Army as opposed to a collision of strong personalities.
Evanthis Hatzivassiliou, “Cold War Pressures, Regional Strategies, and Relative Decline: British Military and Strategic Planning for Cyprus, 1950–1960,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1143-1166
In the early period after World War II, Cyprus became useful to Britain both for the military projection of British power in the Middle East, and for the planning of an air campaign against the Soviet Union itself. At the same time, the mounting British difficulties in the Middle East, especially the loss of the Suez base in 1954, meant that Cyprus, under full British sovereignty, was the most “secure” British position in the region. Thus, strategic and military needs were important in the British decision to retain the island. Even after Cypriot independence in 1960, London retained two large sovereign bases in Cyprus.
Tim Stapleton, “‘Bad Boys’: Infiltration and Sedition in the African Military Units of the
Central African Federation (Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe) 1953–63,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1167-1193
New evidence reveals that some African soldiers in Britain’s Central African Federation―today’s Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe ―developed African nationalist sympathies in the 1950s and early 1960s because of nationalist infiltration and the increasing unpopularity of colonialism. Discontent was also linked to participation in British counter-insurgency in Malaya, and news of Kenya’s Mau Mau Uprising and the Congo Crisis. African soldiers questioned European officers, demanded commissions, wrote complaint letters, met secretly, circulated nationalist propaganda, joined nationalist organizations, made abortive plots and engaged in “subversive talk.” With independence for Zambia and Malawi, white officers in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) doubted black soldiers’ dependability in future operations against nationalist insurgents but had to rely on them because of limited white manpower.
Kevin M. Boylan, “The Red Queen’s Race: Operation Washington Green and Pacification in Binh Dinh Province, 1969–70,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1195-1230
This article examines Operation Washington Green, conducted by the 173rd Airborne Brigade in Binh Dinh province, South Vietnam. It was a model operation that tested the ability of a regular U.S. Army unit to execute a sophisticated counterinsurgency mission that required the brigade to deploy in static detachments to secure rural hamlets and train co-located South Vietnamese Territorial units, and to strictly limit its use of indirect firepower. Because the operation closely matched recommendations made by many critics of U.S. military operations in Vietnam, it offers insights into the likely effectiveness of their recommended alternative strategy focusing on population control.
Awet T. Weldemichael, “The Eritrean Long March: The Strategic Withdrawal of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), 1978–1979,” The Journal of Military History 73 #4 (October 2009): 1231-1271
This article examines the controversial Strategic Withdrawal of Eritrean fighters (EPLF) in the face of Soviet-backed Ethiopian offensives during the Eritrean War of Independence of 1961-91. It highlights the long-term effects of these decisive battles and argues that despite immediate Eritrean setbacks and Ethiopian successes in these encounters, the ultimate strengths and weaknesses of the two adversaries first became apparent during the Withdrawal. Eventually, the Eritrean independence fighters decisively won the war because, as a guerrilla army, they were more adaptable to the fast changing conditions on the ground. Blinded by their belief in armaments and numbers, their far superior foe neglected to correctly appraise the situation and improvise strategy accordingly. This article stops in 1980 when the EPLF went over to the tactical offensive.

FORUM: Confederate Military Strategy in the U.S. Civil War - Revisited, Stephen Badsey, Donald Stoker, Joseph G. Dawson III, 1273-1287
Review Essay:
Peter Paret, “The Annales School and the History of War,” 1289-1295

 
Reviews:
If Mahan Ran the Great Pacific War: An Analysis of World War II Naval Strategy, by John A. Adams, reviewed by Daniel Moran and by Jon Sumida, 1295-1297

The Eye of Command, by Kimberly Kagan, reviewed by Lawrence A. Tritle , 1297-1298

The Making of Peace: Rulers, States, and the Aftermath of War, edited by Williamson Murray and Jim Lacey, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 1298-1299

Military Culture in Imperial China, edited by Nicola di Cosmo, reviewed by Paul Jakov Smith, 1300-1301

Jerusalem’s Traitor: Josephus, Masada, and the Fall of Judea, by Desmond Seward, reviewed by Rose Mary Sheldon, 1301-1303

Belisarius, the Last Roman General, by Ian Hughes, reviewed by J. P. Karras, 1303-1305

Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period, edited by Don J. Wyatt, reviewed by Naomi Standen, 1305-1307

The Serf, the Knight, and the Historian, by Dominique Barthélemy, translated by Graham Robert Edwards, reviewed by Bernard S. Bachrach, 1307-1310

Crusaders and Settlers in the Latin East, by Jonathan Riley-Smith, reviewed by Conor Kostick, 1310-1311

Calais: An English Town in France, 1347-1558, by Susan Rose and The Calais Garrison: War and Military Service in England, 1436-1558, by David Grummitt, reviewed by Gwilym Dodd, 1311-1314

Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, c. 1480-1560, by David Potter, reviewed by Brian Sandberg, 1314-1316

The Road to Rocroi: Class, Culture and Command in the Spanish Army of Flanders, 1567-1659, by Fernando González de León, reviewed by Ruth MacKay, 1316-1317

The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History, edited and translated by Tryntje Helfferich, reviewed by Peter H. Wilson, 1318-1319

How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century, by Tonio Andrade, reviewed by José Eugenio Borao, 1319-1320

A Rabble in Arms: Massachusetts Towns and Militiamen during King Philip’s War, by Kyle F. Zelner, reviewed by Barry M. Stentiford, 1320-1322

Propaganda e información en tiempos de Guerra: España y América (1700-1714), by David González Cruz, reviewed by Christopher Storrs, 1322-1323

Shipping and Military Power in the Seven Years War: The Sails of Victory, by David Syrett, reviewed by James Pritchard, 1323-1324

Rise and Fight Again: The Life of Nathanael Greene, by Spencer C. Tucker, reviewed by John Buchanan, 1323-1327

The Press Gang: Naval Impressment and its opponents in Georgian Britain, by Nicholas Rogers, reviewed by David J. Starkey, 1327-1328

The Long Ride of Major von Schill: A Journey through German History and Memory, by Sam A. Mustafa, reviewed by Todd Blake Berryman, 1328-1329

The Mexican Wars of Independence, by Timothy J. Henderson, reviewed by Pedro Santoni, 1329-1330

The Black Hawk War of 1832, by Patrick J. Jung and Inkpaduta: Dakota Leader, by Paul N. Beck, reviewed by John W. Hall, 1331-1332

The Development of British Naval Thinking: Essays in Memory of Bryan Ranft, edited by Geoffrey Till, reviewed by John B. Hattendorf, 1332-1334

Grant’s Lieutenants: From Cairo to Vicksburg and Grant’s Lieutenants: From Chattanooga to Appomattox, edited by Steven E. Woodworth, reviewed by David Fitzpatrick, 1334-1336

The H. L. Hunley: The Secret Hope of the Confederacy, by Tom Chaffin, reviewed by Michael Christopher Tuttle, 1337-1338

Commanding Lincoln’s Navy: Union Naval Leadership During the Civil War, by Stephen R. Taaffe, reviewed by William H. Roberts, 1338-1339

Our Trust is in the God of Battles: The Civil War Letters of Robert Franklin Bunting, Chaplain, Terry’s Texas Rangers, C. S. A., edited by Thomas Cutrer, reviewed by Arthur R. Carmody, Jr., 1339-1341

Custer and the Front Royal Executions of 1864, by Jay W. Simson, reviewed by Robert Bateman, 1341-1342

Class and Race in the Frontier Army: Military Life in the West, 1870-1890, by Kevin Adams, reviewed by Frank N. Schubert, 1342-1343

The Occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, by László Bencze, edited by Frank N. Schubert, reviewed by Zvezdan Marković, 1343-1346

Andean Tragedy: Fighting the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884, by William F. Sater, reviewed by Christon I. Archer, 1346-1347

Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry, 1880-1918, by Stephen Badsey, reviewed by Steven J. Corvi, 1348-1349

Restaging War in the Western World: Noncombatant Experiences, 1890-Today, edited by Maartje Abbenhuis and Sara Buttsworth, reviewed by Heather Marie Stur, 1350-1351

Manila and Santiago: The New Steel Navy in the Spanish-American War, by Jim Leeke, reviewed by Harold D. Langley, 1351-1352

War and Disease: Biomedical Research on Malaria in the Twentieth Century, by Leo B. Slater, reviewed by Mark F. Leep, 1353-1354

Military Intelligence and the Arab Revolt: The First Modern Intelligence War, by Polly A. Mohs, reviewed by Ryan Gingeras, 1354-1355

The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War, by Mustafa Aksakal, reviewed by Alexander M. Shelby, 1355-1356

Enduring the Great War: Combat, Morale and Collapse in the German and British Armies, 1914-1918, by Alexander Watson, reviewed by Adam R. Seipp, 1357-1358

At the Sharp End: Canadians Fighting the Great War 1914-1916, Volume One and Shock Troops: Canadians Fighting the Great War 1917-1918, Volume Two, by Tim Cook, reviewed by Ian M. Brown, 1358-1360

The Last Great War: British Society and the First World War, by Adrian Gregory, reviewed by Stephen M. Miller, 1360-1361

Borrowed Soldiers: Americans Under British Command, 1918, by Mitchell A. Yockelson, reviewed by Mark E. Grotelueschen, 1361-1363

Treating Trauma of the Great War: Soldiers, Civilians and Psychiatry in France, 1914-1940, by Gregory Thomas, reviewed by Edgar Jones, 1363-1364

Naval Warfare, 1919-1945: An Operational History of the Volatile War at Sea, by Malcolm Murfett, reviewed by Nicholas Evan Sarantakes, 1364-1365

Iraq’s Armed Forces: An Analytical History, by Ibrahim Al-Marashi and Sammy Salama, reviewed by Stephen A. Bourque, 1365-1366

Diplomats in Blue: U.S. Naval Officers in China, 1922-1933, by William Reynolds Braisted, reviewed by Roger Dingman, 1366-1368

The Palestinian Military: Between Militias and Armies, by Hillel Frisch, reviewed by Charles D. Smith, 1368-1370

Intelligence and Anglo-American Air Support in World War Two: The Western Desert and Tunisia, 1940-43, by Brad William Gladman, reviewed by Richard R. Muller, 1370-1371

Dowding of Fighter Command: Victor of the Battle of Britain, by Vincent Orange, reviewed by Christina Goulter, 1371-1374

The Bloody Triangle: The Defeat of Soviet Armor in the Ukraine, June 1941, by Victor J. Kamenir, reviewed by Michael Marino, 1374-1375

West Wind Clear: Cryptology and the Winds Message Controversy - A Documentary History. United States Cryptologic History Series IV: World War II Volume X, edited by Robert J. Hanyok and David P. Mowry, reviewed by Ralph Erskine, 1375-1376

D-Day in the Pacific: The Battle of Saipan, by Harold Goldberg, reviewed by Matthew Hughes, 1377-1378

The USS Puffer in World War II: A History of the Submarine and Its Wartime Crew, by Craig R. McDonald, reviewed by Michael Sturma, 1378-1379

Through the Maelstrom: A Red Army Soldier’s War on the Eastern Front, by Boris Gorbachevsky, translated and edited by Stuart Britton, reviewed by Lee Baker, 1379-1380

Internet Alley: High Technology in Tysons Corner, 1945-2005, by Paul E. Ceruzzi, reviewed by Blair Haworth, 1380-1381

The Atomic Bomb and American Society: New Perspectives, edited by Rosemary B. Mariner and G. Kurt Piehler, reviewed by Michael D. Gordin, 1382-1383

The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974, by James E. Miller, reviewed by Jonathan M. House, 1383-1384

History of Operations Research in the United States Army, Volume II: 1961-1973, by Charles R. Shrader, reviewed by Clayton R. Newell, 1384-1385

Military Transformation Past and Present: Historic Lessons for the 21st Century, by Mark D. Mandeles, reviewed by Harold R. Winton, 1385-1386

Network-Centric Warfare: How Navies Learned to Fight Smarter through Three World Wars, by Norman Friedman, reviewed by Kathleen Broome Williams, 1386-1388

Navy Medicine in Vietnam: Oral Histories from Dien Bien Phu to the Fall of Saigon, by Jan K. Herman, reviewed by Steven L. Oreck, 1388-1389

The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa, by Gebru Tareke, reviewed by Richard Reid, 1389-1390

How World Politics Is Made: France and the Reunification of Germany, by Tilo Schabert, edited by Barry Cooper, translated by John Tyler Tuttle, reviewed by Holger Loewendorf, 1390-1391

The Road to Safwan: The 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, by Stephen A. Bourque and John W. Burdan III, reviewed by Keith Bickel, 1392-1393

Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War, by Robert M. Cassidy, reviewed by Joseph R. Cerami, 1393-1395

The Forever War, by Dexter Filkins, reviewed by Fred L. Borch, 1395-1396

Film Review Essay:
Frank J. Wetta and Martin A. Novelli, “More Like a Painting - The War: A Ken Burns Film: An Interview with Roger Spiller,” 1397-1405

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED: 1406-1410
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES: 1411-1414
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: 1415
INDEX TO VOLUME 73: 1416-1440