Journal of Military History
Vol. 71, No. 4
October 2007

Articles

Nick Lloyd, "'With Faith and Without Fear': Sir Douglas Haig's Command of First Army During 1915," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1051-1076.
Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig is the best-known (if popularly reviled) British commander of the First World War. But several important periods of his career remain poorly understood. This article aims to refocus attention on one such period: his command of First Army during 1915. After looking at the creation of armies within the British Expeditionary Force in December 1914, the article examines the relationship between Haig and the Commander-in-Chief, Sir John French, and highlights the unprecedented degree of independence that Haig was allowed during that year. This had a number of important implications for the offensives the British conducted during 1915, which were fought according to Haig's unrealistic prewar ideas of the "decisive" battle and the "human-battlefield."
Erika Kuhlman, "American Doughboys and German Fräuleins: Sexuality, Patriarchy, and Privilege in the American-Occupied Rhineland, 1918-23," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1077-1106.
This article investigates how the U.S. military occupation of the German Rhineland after the First World War helped to reconstruct patriarchy in the occupied zone through the control of doughboys' and Frauleins' sexuality. The relative stability enjoyed in the American zone in turn enabled the United States to mediate conflicts and operate as a reconciling influence among the other, more quarrelsome occupying powers. The two systems of power and privilege-patriarchy and international relations-operated simultaneously to produce the desired result of maintaining the American international advantage in the postwar world.
Douglas C. Peifer, "The Past in the Present: Passion, Politics, and the Historical Profession in the German and British Pardon Campaigns," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1107-1132.
Between 1985 and 2006, public debates raged in Germany and Britain about overturning courts-martial sentences from the First and Second World Wars. These debates provide a window for understanding how military-historical topics become mainstream contemporary debates. Long a peripheral matter, by the 1990s military justice during the World Wars had vaulted from the field of grassroots activism to the legislative, executive, and judicial arenas of government. The pardon campaigns followed their own trajectories as preexisting narratives, nation-specific actors, and contemporary agendas interacted with historical research and new scholarship. The campaigns culminated in the overturning of Wehrmacht convictions from the Second World War (Germany, 1997) and a blanket pardon for soldiers executed for cowardice and desertion during the First World War (Britain, 2006).
Ken Young, "No Blank Cheque: Anglo-American (Mis)understandings and the Use of the English Airbases," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1133-1168.
Following the Berlin crisis of 1948, U.S. strategic bombers-supposed "atomic capable"-were based in Britain, but with no agreement on the terms of their operation. Using British and U.S. archival sources, this article examines the discussions about the conditions under which U.S. bombers would have operated from British soil in a nuclear strike upon the Soviet Union, a key issue in the emergence of Britain's postwar "special relationship" with the United States. It focuses on the political and military concerns on both sides of the Atlantic about agreements limiting the use of the airbases during the crucial period 1948-58.
Donald Alan Carter, "Eisenhower Versus the Generals," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1169-1200.
The most fundamental principle in American civil-military relationships is the subordination of the military to civilian control; consequently, senior military officers serve as advisors to the President and his cabinet. In 1953, Dwight D. Eisenhower brought to the presidency a great deal of military expertise and strong convictions regarding national security, which his New Look proposed to guarantee by relying on atomic weapons, the Strategic Air Command, and a robust economy. Army officers believed the New Look's drastic reductions in conventional ground forces challenged the very existence of their service. Tired of their dissension, the President steadily isolated himself from opposing views voiced by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, particularly those of the Army.

Document of Note
John M. Carland, "High Maintenance Generals," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1201-1202.

Review Essay
Reina Pennington, "Women, War, and the Military," The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1203-1210.
 
Reviews:
Susannah Ural Bruce, The Harp and the Eagle: Irish-American Volunteers and the Union Army, 1861-1865, reviewed by Christian B. Keller and by Richard Doherty, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1211-1213.

Tony Pollard and Iain Banks, editors, War and Sacrifice: Studies in the Archaeology of Conflict, reviewed by Barry D. Kass, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1213-1215.

Ralph D. Sawyer, The Tao of Deception: Unorthodox Warfare in Historic and Modern China, reviewed by David A. Graff, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1215-1216.

Kurt A. Raaflaub, editor, War and Peace in the Ancient World, reviewed by Craig H. Caldwell, III, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1217-1218.

Ronnie Ellenblum, Crusader Castles and Modern Histories, reviewed by Jonathan Phillips, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1218-1219.

Tracey Rihll, The Catapult: A History, reviewed by Barton C. Hacker, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1219-1220.

John D. Hosler, Henry II: A Medieval Soldier at War, 1147-1189, reviewed by David S. Bachrach, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1220-1222.

Timothy May, The Mongol Art of War: Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Military System, reviewed by Denis Sinor, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1223-1224.

William Caferro, John Hawkwood, An English Mercenary in Fourteenth-Century Italy, reviewed by Niccolò Capponi, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1224-1225.

Erik Swart, Krijgsvolk: Militaire professionalisering en het ontstaan van het Staatse leger, 1568-1590, reviewed by Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1225-1227.

Eugene Y. Park, Between Dreams and Reality: The Military Examination in Late Chosûn Korea, 1600-1894, reviewed by Kenneth M. Swope, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1227-1228.

Larrie D. Ferreiro, Ships and Science: The Birth of Naval Architecture in the Scientific Revolution, 1600-1800, reviewed by C. I. Hamilton, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1228-1229.

Jeremy Black, European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815, reviewed by Guy Chet, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1229-1231.

Roy L. McCullough, Coercion, Conversion, and Counterinsurgency in Louis XIV's France, reviewed by Jamel Ostwald, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1231-1232.

Jamel Ostwald, Vauban under Siege: Engineering Efficiency and Martial Vigor in the War of the Spanish Succession, reviewed by Simon Pepper, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1232-1233.

Brendan McConville, The King's Three Faces: The Rise and Fall of Royal America, 1688-1776, reviewed by Stephen Saunders Webb, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1233-1234.

Stephen Brumwell, Paths of Glory: The Life and Death of General James Wolfe, reviewed by Frank Kalesnik, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1235-1236.

Ian W. Toll, Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy, reviewed by Scott E. Belliveau, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1236-1237.

John C. Pinheiro, Manifest Ambition: James K. Polk and Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War, reviewed by Samuel Watson, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1237-1239.

Richard R. Duncan, Beleaguered Winchester: A Virginia Community at War, 1861-1865, reviewed by Kenneth W. Noe, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1239-1240.

Richard M. McMurry, editor, An Uncompromising Secessionist: The Civil War of George Knox Miller, Eighth (Wade's) Confederate Cavalry, reviewed by James I. Robertson, Jr., The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1240-1241.

Stephen V. Ash, Middle Tennessee Society Transformed, 1860-1870: War and Peace in the Upper South, reviewed by Daniel W. Crofts, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1241-1243.

Jennifer L. Weber, Copperheads: The Rise and Fall of Lincoln's Opponents in the North, reviewed by Phillip Shaw Paludan, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1243-1245.

Richard H. Hall, Women on the Civil War Battlefront, reviewed by Joan E. Cashin, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1245-1246.

Gary D. Joiner, Through the Howling Wilderness: The 1864 Red River Campaign and Union Failure in the West, reviewed by Anne J. Bailey, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1246-1247.

A. Wilson Greene, Civil War Petersburg: Confederate City in the Crucible of War, reviewed by William B. Rogers, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1247-1248.

James M. McPherson, This Mighty Scourge: Perspectives on the Civil War, reviewed by Brian Holden Reid, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1249-1250.

James K. Hogue, Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles and the Rise and Fall of Radical Reconstruction, reviewed by Joseph G. Dawson, III, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1250-1251.

Jerome A. Greene, War Veterans: Memories of Army Life and Campaigns in the West, 1864-1898, reviewed by Frank N. Schubert, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1251-1252.

Arthur Bleby, The Victorian Naval Brigades, reviewed by Ian F. W. Beckett, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1252-1253.

George Kassimeris, editor, The Barbarization of Warfare, reviewed by Jeremy Black, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1253-1254.

Lisle A. Rose, Power at Sea: The Age of Navalism, 1890-1918; Power at Sea: The Breaking Storm, 1919-1945; and Power at Sea: A Violent Peace, 1946-2006, reviewed by Kathleen Broome Williams, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1254-1256.

Zisis Fotakis, Greek Naval Strategy and Policy, 1910-1919, reviewed by Jonathan Grant, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1256-1257.

Maartje M. Abbenhuis-Ash, The Art of Staying Neutral: The Netherlands in the First World War, 1914-1918, reviewed by Hubert P. van Tuyll, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1257-1258.

Sidney Rogerson, Twelve Days on the Somme: A Memoir of the Trenches, 1916, reviewed by J. M. Bourne, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1258-1259.

Mark Ethan Grotelueschen, The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in World War I, reviewed by Douglas V. Johnson, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1260-1261.

Horace L. Baker, edited by Robert H. Ferrell, Argonne Days in World War I; John W. Barry, The Midwest Goes to War: The 32nd Division in the Great War, reviewed by Daniel R. Beaver, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1261-1262.

Edward J. Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A Comparative Study, reviewed by Matthew Hughes, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1262-1263.

David T. Zabecki, The German 1918 Offensives: A Case Study in the Operational Level of War, reviewed by Russell A. Hart, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1263-1264.

Patrick O. Cohrs, The Unfinished Peace after World War I: America, Britain, and the Stabilisation of Europe, 1919-1932, reviewed by Gordon Martel, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1264-1266.

G. C. Peden, Arms, Economics, and British Strategy: From Dreadnoughts to Hydrogen Bombs, reviewed by Jon Tetsuro Sumida, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1266-1267.

Talbot C. Imlay and Monica Duffy Toft, editors, The Fog of Peace and War Planning: Military and Strategic Planning under Uncertainty, reviewed by Samuel R. Williamson, Jr., The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1267-1268.

Nancy M. Wingfield and Maria Bucur, editors, Gender and War in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe, reviewed by Peter Gatrell, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1269-1270.

Sadao Asada, From Mahan to Pearl Harbor: The Imperial Japanese Navy and the United States, reviewed by Carlos R. Rivera, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1270-1271.

Geoffrey P. Megargee, War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941, reviewed by Frank Buscher, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1271-1272.

José Luis Rodrîguez Jiménez, De héroes e indeseables: La División Azul, reviewed by Stanley G. Payne, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1272-1273.

Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, The Legacy of the Siege of Leningrad, 1941-1995: Myth, Memories, and Monuments, reviewed by Katrin Paehler, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1273-1275.

Walter S. Dunn, Jr., Stalin's Keys to Victory: The Rebirth of the Red Army, reviewed by Jonathan M. House, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1275-1276.

Kenneth Slepyan, Stalin's Guerrillas: Soviet Partisans in World War II, reviewed by Patrick M. Albano, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1276-1277.

Ken Wiley, Lucky Thirteen: D-Days in the Pacific with the U.S. Coast Guard in World War II, reviewed by C. Douglas Kroll, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1277-1278.

Donald J. Hanle, Near Miss: The Army Air Forces' Guided Bomb Program in World War II, reviewed by Michael J. Neufeld, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1278-1279.

Pap A. Ndiaye, translated by Elborg Forster, Nylon and Bombs: DuPont and the March of Modern America, reviewed by Terrence J. Gough, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1279-1281.

Joerg Friedrich, translated by Allison Brown, The Fire: The Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945, reviewed by Tami Davis Biddle, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1281-1282.

David M. Glantz, Red Storm Over the Balkans: The Failed Soviet Invasion of Romania, Spring 1944, reviewed by Mark Axworthy, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1282-1283.

Nigel Hamilton, Montgomery: D-Day Commander, reviewed by Colin F. Baxter, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1283-1286.

Jack Capell, Surviving the Odds: From D-Day to VE Day with the 4th Division in Europe, reviewed by Lawrence A. Tritle, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1287-1288.

Harold R. Winton, Corps Commanders of the Bulge: Six American Generals and Victory in the Ardennes, reviewed by Adrian R. Lewis, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1288-1290.

Raymond Callahan, Churchill and His Generals, reviewed by David French, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1290-1291.

Roman Kravchenko-Berezhnoy, Victims, Victors: From Nazi Occupation to the Conquest of Germany as Seen by a Red Army Soldier, reviewed by Walter S. Dunn, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1291-1292.

Tony Le Tissier, Patton's Pawns: The 94th US Infantry Division at the Siegfried Line, reviewed by John C. McManus, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1292-1294.

James F. Christ, Mission Raise Hell: The U.S. Marines on Choiseul, October-November 1943; George B. Clark, The Six Marine Divisions in the Pacific: Every Campaign of World War II, reviewed by David J. Ulbrich, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1294-1295.

Clint Eastwood, producer, Letters from Iwo Jima (motion picture); Kumiko Kakehashi, So Sad to Fall in Battle: An Account of War Based on General Tadamichi Kuribayashi's Letters from Iwo Jima, reviewed by Edward J. Drea, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1295-1297.

Robert S. Burrell, The Ghosts of Iwo Jima, reviewed by Kenneth W. Estes, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1297-1299.

Hooshang Talé with Farhad Talé, Iran in the Claws of the Bear: The Failed Soviet Landgrab of 1946, reviewed by Elena Andreeva, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1299-1300.

Ronald A. Spector, In the Ruins of Empire: The Japanese Surrender and the Battle for Postwar Asia, reviewed by Stanley L. Falk, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1300-1301.

Tim Cook, Clio's Warriors: Canadian Historians and the Writing of the World Wars, reviewed by David J. Bercuson, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1301-1303.

Allan R. Millett, The War for Korea, 1945-1950: A House Burning, reviewed by James I. Matray, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1303-1304.

Xiaobing Li, A History of the Modern Chinese Army, reviewed by Gary J. Bjorge, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1305-1306.

Christopher S. DeRosa, Political Indoctrination in the U.S. Army from World War II to the Vietnam War, reviewed by Janet G. Valentine, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1306-1307.

Austin Long, On "Other War": Lessons from Five Decades of RAND Counterinsurgency Research; David Galula, Pacification in Algeria, 1956-1958, reviewed by Stephen A. Bourque, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1307-1309.

Robert P. Grathwol and Donita M. Moorhus, Building for Peace: U.S. Army Engineers in Europe, 1945-1991, reviewed by Adrian G. Traas, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1309-1310.

Sergei Khrushchev, editor, translated by George Shriver and Stephen Shenfield, Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev, Volume 2, Reformer [1945-1964], reviewed by Paul Wanke, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1310-1311.

Lawrence S. Kaplan, Ronald D. Landa, and Edward J. Drea, The McNamara Ascendancy, 1961-1965, vol. 5 of History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, reviewed by Albert I. Berger, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1311-1313.

Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Escalation, 1962-1967, reviewed by Mark Moyar, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1313-1314.

Edwin E. Moïse, The A to Z of the Vietnam War, reviewed by Deborah Kidwell, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1314-1315.

William Thomas Allison, Military Justice in Vietnam: The Rule of Law in an American War, reviewed by Fred Borch, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1315-1317.

Elizabeth Lutes Hillman, Defending America: Military Culture and the Cold War Court-Martial, reviewed by William Kautt, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1318-1319.

Curtis Gilroy and Cindy Williams, editors, Service to Country: Personnel Policy and the Transformation of Western Militaries, reviewed by Robert L. Goldich, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1319-1320.

Yoram Peri, Generals in the Cabinet Room: How the Military Shapes Israeli Policy, reviewed by Ralph Hitchens, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1321-1322.

Eric V. Larson and Bogdan Savych, Misfortunes of War: Press and Public Reactions to Civilian Deaths in Wartime, reviewed by William M. Hammond, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1322-1323.

Kendall D. Gott, Breaking the Mold: Tanks in the Cities, reviewed by George F. Hofmann, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1324-1325.

Michael B. Oren, Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present, reviewed by John P. Dunn, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1325-1326.

Charles A. Stevenson, Warriors and Politicians: US Civil-Military Relations under Stress; Thomas C. Bruneau and Scott D. Tollefson, editors, Who Guards the Guardians and How: Democratic Civil-Military Relations, reviewed by Roy McCullough, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1326-1327.

Jan Angstrom and Isabelle Duyvesteyn, editors, Understanding Victory and Defeat in Contemporary War, reviewed by John P. Cann, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1328-1329.

Adrian R. Lewis, The American Culture of War: The History of U.S. Military Force from World War II to Operation Iraqi Freedom, reviewed by Richard M. Swain, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1329-1330.

Philip E. Tetlock, Richard Ned Lebow, and Geoffrey Parker, editors, Unmaking the West: "What-If" Scenarios that Rewrite World History, reviewed by Jerry H. Bentley, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1330-1332.

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1333-1342.
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1343-1346.
LETTER FROM THE EDITOR, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1347.
INDEX TO VOLUME 71, The Journal of Military History 71 #4 (October 2007): 1348-1373.