Journal of Military History
Vol. 71, No. 1
January 2007

Articles

Donald J. Kagay, "The Defense of the Crown of Aragon during the War of the Two Pedros (1356-1366)," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 11-36.
This article focuses on the general strategy of defense developed by the Aragonese king Pere III during the War of the Two Pedros (1356-66) between the Crown of Aragon and Castile, headed by Pedro I "the Cruel." After eight years of fiscal creativity and defensive luck, Pere retained most of his territory but had lost some sovereignty to his parliaments. He then went on the offensive but never effectively defeated Pedro; this was achieved by his ally Enrique de Trastámara, Pedro's stepbrother. What the war did accomplish, however, was the establishment of administrative and military forces that would ultimately lead toward a Spanish statehood in the fifteenth century.
Gervase Phillips, "Scapegoat Arm: Twentieth-Century Cavalry in Anglophone Historiography," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 37-74.
The cavalry has not been treated kindly by military historians. Portrayed as an anachronism on the twentieth-century battlefield, the arm became a convenient scapegoat for failures in war and the slow pace of modernisation in peacetime. This article traces the debate over cavalry over the course of the last hundred years, drawing both on contemporary sources and later historical analysis. It is suggested that a reassessment of the capabilities of early twentieth-century soldiers and an interest in the military history of eastern Europe has led, in turn, to a more positive interpretation of the cavalry's role in modern warfare.
Stephen Badsey, "The Boer War (1899-1902) and British Cavalry Doctrine: A Re-Evaluation," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 75-98.
Among the important British Army reforms following the Boer War (1899-1902) was the introduction of a longer-range rifle for the cavalry instead of a carbine, and a tactical doctrine including dismounted fire. It remains the view of most historians that the cavalry learned dismounted tactics from their Boer opponents, and that postwar reform of the cavalry was imposed from outside. Senior cavalry officers of the period are viewed as reactionary, and their performance in the First World War judged accordingly. This view is based on a partisan interpretation of the Boer War and the cavalry's role in it, fostered by its contemporary institutional critics. In fact, a cavalry reform movement was introducing dismounted tactics before the Boer War, both sides in the war used mounted and dismounted tactics, and the cavalry's problems were largely those of supply and not of their own making. This has much wider implications for the assessment of British military doctrines up to the end of the First World War.
Jean Bou, "Cavalry, Firepower, and Swords: The Australian Light Horse and the Tactical Lessons of Cavalry Operations in Palestine, 1916-1918," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 99-126.
Despite their frequent description as mounted infantry, more than half of the Australian Light Horse finished the First World War as full sword-carrying cavalry, making use of both fire and modern shock tactics. This change ran counter to the traditions of the Australian mounted service, which had long emphasised rifle-based firepower for modern mounted troops. This article will examine the reasons why such a force adopted the sword in 1918, the nature of the change, and the experiences behind it. Even in the last year of the First World War, cavalry shock tactics still had a place on the battlefield.
Alexander M. Bielakowski, "General Hawkins's War: The Future of the Horse in the U.S. Cavalry," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 127-138.
During the interwar period, while some officers supported mechanization, others, who could accurately be termed "traditionalists", supported the horse. One of the most prominent of these "traditionalists" was Brigadier General Hamilton S. Hawkins. Hawkins contended that mechanized vehicles would never be capable or numerous enough to completely eliminate the use of horse cavalry. Even as mechanized forces dominated the battlefield during World War II, Hawkins continued to write about the need for horse cavalry. Faced with overwhelming evidence in favor of mechanized vehicles, Hawkins ultimately demonstrated that his advocacy of the horse was a matter of faith and not of empirical evidence.
Phillip S. Meilinger, "A History of Effects-Based Air Operations," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 139-168.
Effects-Based Operations focus on results achieved from using military operations-the output. Too often, military commanders and their staffs concentrate on the means-the inputs-sterile metrics like body counts, bomb tonnage, or the number of sorties flown. U.S. airmen have always recognized the inherent logic and desirability of concentrating on effects, and their doctrine going into World War II emphasized this focus. Unfortunately, the intelligence apparatus necessary to analyze a complex enemy economic system did not then exist. Since then, new technologies and new analytical tools-which came into their own during the Persian Gulf War of 1991-have made this decades-old concept a reality.
David Milne, "'Our equivalent of guerrilla warfare': Walt Rostow and the Bombing of North Vietnam, 1961-1968," The Journal of Military History 71#1 (January 2007): 169-204.
This article examines the contribution that Walt Rostow made to the shaping of U.S. military strategy during the second Indochina War. It links Rostow's work as an economic historian with the advice that he dispensed in the field of strategic bombing. In 1964, Rostow explained to Secretary of State Dean Rusk that "Ho [Chi Minh] has an industrial complex to protect: he is no longer a guerrilla fighter with nothing to lose." Rostow's economic determinism led him to advocate the bombing of North Vietnam more forcefully than any of his civilian colleagues.
 
Reviews:
Carol Reardon, Launch the Intruders: A Naval Attack Squadron in the Vietnam War, 1972, reviewed by Ralph F. Wetterhahn and by Malcolm Muir, Jr., 205-207.

Thomas T. Allsen, The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History, reviewed by Timothy May, 207-208.

John Drogo Montagu, Greek and Roman Warfare: Battles, Tactics, and Trickery, reviewed by Antonio Santosuosso, 208-209.

Pat Southern, The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History, reviewed by David Cherry, 209-210.

D. J. Woolliscroft and B. Hoffmann, Rome's First Frontier: The Flavian Occupation of Northern Scotland, reviewed by Rose Mary Sheldon, 210-211.

J. O. Prestwich, edited by Michael Prestwich, The Place of War in English History, 1066-1214, reviewed by Stephen Morillo, 211-212.

Cathal J. Nolan, The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Vols. 1 and 2, reviewed by Mack P. Holt, 212-213.

Edward L. Dreyer, Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405-1433, reviewed by David A. Graff, 213-214.

Louis Sicking, Neptune and the Netherlands: State, Economy, and War at Sea in the Renaissance, reviewed by Robert Glass, 215-216.

Stephen Budiansky, Her Majesty's Spymaster: Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the Birth of Modern Espionage, reviewed by Paul E. J. Hammer, 216-217.

Eric Gruber von Arni, Hospital Care and the British Standing Army, 1660-1714, reviewed by John Childs, 217-218.

Roger N. Parks, editor, The Papers of General Nathanael Greene, vol. 13, 22 May 1783-13 June 1786, with Additions to the Series, reviewed by G. Kurt Piehler, 218-220.

Kevin D. McCranie, Admiral Lord Keith and the Naval War against Napoleon, reviewed by Richard Harding, 220-221.

Donald R. Hickey, Don't Give Up the Ship!: Myths of the War of 1812, reviewed by J. C. A. Stagg, 221-222.

Lewis Burt Lesley, editor, Uncle Sam's Camels: The Journal of May Humphreys Stacey Supplemented by the Report of Edward Fitzgerald Beal (1857-1858), reviewed by Paul H. Carlson, 222-223.

Mark R. Wilson, The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861-1865, reviewed by Robert G. Angevine, 223-224.

David M. Owens, The Devil's Topographer: Ambrose Bierce and the American War Story, reviewed by David Rachels, 224-225.

Ethan S. Rafuse, McClellan's War: The Failure of Moderation in the Struggle for the Union, reviewed by David J. Fitzpatrick, 225-227.

Scott Walker, Hell's Broke Loose in Georgia: Survival in a Civil War Regiment, reviewed by Stewart C. Edwards, 227-228.

Tom Carhart, Lost Triumph: Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg-And Why It Failed, reviewed by Brian Holden Reid, 228-229.

Charles W. Sanders, Jr., While in the Hands of the Enemy: Military Prisons of the Civil War, reviewed by Robert C. Doyle, 230.

Donald R. Shaffer, After the Glory: The Struggles of Black Civil War Veterans, reviewed by Joseph P. Reidy, 231-232.

Douglas C. McChristian, Fort Bowie, Arizona: Combat Post of the Southwest, 1858-1894, reviewed by Randy Kane, 232-233.

M. John Lubetkin, Jay Cooke's Gamble: The Northern Pacific Railroad, the Sioux, and the Panic of 1873, reviewed by James McLaird, 233-234.

Brad D. Lookingbill, War Dance at Fort Marion: Plains Indian War Prisoners, reviewed by Frank Kalesnik, 234-235.

John Laband, The Transvaal Rebellion: The First Boer War, 1880-1881, reviewed by Fransjohan Pretorius, 235-236.

William H. Thiesen, Industrializing American Shipbuilding: The Transformation of Ship Design and Construction, 1820-1920, reviewed by William R. Roberts, 236-237.

David H. Olivier, German Naval Strategy 1856-1888: Forerunners of Tirpitz, reviewed by Keith W. Bird, 238.

Ronald G. Machoian, William Harding Carter and the American Army: A Soldier's Story, reviewed by Erik B. Villard, 239.

Geoffrey R. Hunt, Colorado's Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 1898-1899, reviewed by Richard Meixsel, 240.

Jeremy Black, The Age of Total War, 1860-1945, reviewed by Ethan S. Rafuse, 241-242.

Michael S. Neiberg, Fighting the Great War: A Global History, reviewed by Mel Blumenthal, 242.

Fred R. van Hartesveldt, The Battles of the British Expeditionary Forces, 1914-1915: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography, reviewed by Nikolas Gardner, 243-244.

Ian F. W. Beckett and Steven J. Corvi, editors, Haig's Generals, reviewed by George H. Cassar, 244-245.

Leon Bennett, Gunning for the Red Baron, reviewed by Guillaume de Syon, 245-246.

Daniel Allen Butler, Distant Victory: The Battle of Jutland and the Allied Triumph in the First World War, reviewed by James P. Levy, 246-247.

John J. Abbatiello, Anti-Submarine Warfare in World War I: British Naval Aviation and the Defeat of the U-Boats, reviewed by Eric W. Osborne, 247-248.

David L. Snead, editor, George Browne: An American Soldier in World War I, reviewed by Robert H. Ferrell, 248-249.

John W. Thomason, Jr., edited by George B. Clark, The United States Army Second Division Northwest of Chateau Thierry in World War One, reviewed by Daniel R. Beaver, 249-250.

Thomas C. Hone and Trent Hone, Battle Line: The United States Navy, 1919-1939, reviewed by Branden Little, 250-251.

Alfred M. Beck, Hitler's Ambivalent Attaché: Lt. Gen. Friedrich von Boetticher in America, 1933-1941, reviewed by Uwe Lbken, 251-252.

James P. Levy, Appeasement and Rearmament: Britain, 1936-1939, reviewed by David French, 252-253.

Robert M. Citino, The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich, reviewed by Adam R. Seipp, 253-254.

Keith W. Bird, Erich Raeder: Admiral of the Third Reich, reviewed by Eric C. Rust, 254-255.

Keith Eubank, The Origins of World War II, 3d ed.; Victor Rothwell, War Aims in the Second World War: The War Aims of the Major Belligerents, 1939-1945, reviewed by Russell A. Hart, 256-257.

Justus D. Doenecke and Mark A. Stoler, Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, 1933-1945, reviewed by Mary Glantz, 257-258.

Peter Brock, Against the Draft: Essays on Conscientious Objection from the Radical Reformation to the Second World War, reviewed by Robert L. Goldich, 258-259.

Valdis O. Lumans, Latvia in World War II, reviewed by David Galbreath, 259-260.

Judy Barrett Litoff, editor, An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia d'Albert-Lake, reviewed by M. R. D. Foot, 260-261.

Wayne H. Bowen, Spain during World War II, reviewed by Judith Keene, 261-263.

Kenneth H. Joyce, Snow Plow and the Jupiter Deception: The Story of the 1st Special Service Force and the 1st Canadian Special Service Battalion, 1942-1945, reviewed by Alexander W. G. Herd, 264-264.

"Nigel West" [Rupert Allason], editor, The Guy Liddell Diaries, Volume 2, 1942-1945, reviewed by Thaddeus Holt, 265-266.

Roger Ford , Steel from the Sky: The Jedburgh Raiders, France, 1944; Colin Beavan, Operation Jedburgh: D-Day and America's First Shadow War, reviewed by Arthur L. Funk, 266-267.

H. P. Willmott, The Battle of Leyte Gulf: The Last Fleet Action, reviewed by Raymond Westphal, Jr., 267-268.

Cole C. Kingseed, editor, From Omaha Beach to Dawson's Ridge: The Combat Journal of Captain Joe Dawson, reviewed by Steven S. Minniear, 268-269.

A. C. Grayling, Among the Dead Cities: Was the Allied Bombing of Civilians in WWII a Necessity or a Crime?, reviewed by Binoy Kampmark, 269-271.

George R. Nelson, I Company: The First and Last to Fight on Okinawa, reviewed by Earl A. Reitan, 271-272.

Frank Biess, Homecomings: Returning POWs and the Legacies of Defeat in Postwar Germany, reviewed by Michael Heaney, 272-273.

Robert J. Schneller, Jr., Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy's First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality, reviewed by Michael S. Davis, 273-274.

Michael A. Palmer, Command at Sea: Naval Command and Control since the Sixteenth Century, reviewed by William M. McBride, 275-276.

Norman Youngblood, The Development of Mine Warfare: A Most Murderous and Barbarous Conduct, reviewed by David C. Isby, 276-277.

L'Europe et l'Otan face aux défis des élargissements de 1952 et 1954. Organisation internationale et Relations internationales. Actes du colloque organisé par le Centre d'tudes d'histoire de la défense et l'Université de Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, Paris, 22-24 January 2004, reviewed by Liliana Serban and Caterina Pino, 277-278.

Valentina Peguero, The Militarization of Culture in the Dominican Republic, from the Captains General to General Trujillo, reviewed by Andrew G. Wilson, 278-279.

Peter Goodchild, Edward Teller: The Real Dr. Strangelove, reviewed by Frank A. Settle, 279-281.

Dale R. Herspring, The Pentagon and the Presidency: Civil-Military Relations from FDR to George W. Bush, reviewed by Erik Riker-Coleman, 281-282.

Andrew McGregor, A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War, reviewed by John P. Dunn, 283.

Sharon Ghamari Tabrizi, The Worlds of Herman Kahn: The Intuitive Science of Thermonuclear War, reviewed by Thomas A. Julian, 284-285.

Keith Nolan, House to House: Playing the Enemy's Game in Saigon, May 1968, reviewed by Lance R. Blyth, 285-286.

Douglas Bey, Wizard 6: A Combat Psychiatrist in Vietnam, reviewed by Maureen T. Moore, 286-287.

John Glanfield, Bravest of the Brave: The Story of the Victoria Cross; Glyn Harper and Colin Richardson, In the Face of the Enemy: The Complete History of the Victoria Cross and New Zealand, reviewed by W. Robert Houston, 287-288.

D. George Boyce, The Falklands War, reviewed by Stephen Badsey, 289.

Fritz Stern, Five Germanies I Have Known, reviewed by Gerhard L. Weinberg, 290.

Gordon W. Rudd, Humanitarian Intervention: Assisting the Iraqi Kurds in Operation PROVIDE COMFORT, 1991, reviewed by J. R. McKay, 291.

Rob Johnson, A Region in Turmoil: South Asian Conflicts Since 1947; V. P. Malik, Kargil: From Surprise to Victory, reviewed by John H. Gill, 292-293.

Robert Bevan, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War, reviewed by David M. Witty, 294.

Andrea Kathryn Talentino, Military Intervention after the Cold War, reviewed by Walter E. Kretchik, 295-296.

Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, reviewed by Ben Tuck and by Benoît Durieux, 296-297.

Ivan Arreguín-Toft, How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict, reviewed by Jeremy Black, 297-298.

Other:
BOOKS RECEIVED, 299-305.
RECENT JOURNAL ARTICLES, 306-310.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, 311.